Contents of issue # 7/2020

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Metamorphoses of Law and Challenges to Legal Science in the Context of a Coronavirus Pandemic

Chernogor N. N., Zaloilo M. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117128, Russian Federation
E-mail: chernogor72@yandex.ru; z-lo@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.077

Abstract. Since March 2020, Russia has been taking unprecedented legal measures to overcome the negative consequences caused by the spread of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), recognized by the World Health Organization as a pandemic. It's therefore necessary to study the state and changes in modern Russian legislation in the context of emergency response to the challenges associated with the spread of a new coronavirus infection. The purpose of the study is to identify key problems and starting points of legal development in the context of a coronavirus pandemic for consideration in the future in the event of similar crisis situations.
The research methodology is presented by formal legal and systematic methods, methods of object research that involve tracking and controlling its activity (functioning) in order to predict the latter (legal monitoring, legal forecasting and legal modeling), as well as new methods of cognition offered by post-classical jurisprudence.
The article presents the results of a study on the state and dynamics of Russian lawmaking during the coronavirus pandemic, which has a significant impact on the legal system. The article assesses the dynamics of the current federal legislation, taking into account the social changes introduced in the Constitution of the Russian Federation in 2020, and determines the correlation of legislative and sub-legislative regulation. The problem of categorizing the normative legal array adopted in connection with the spread of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is raised. Legal technologies that ensure the formation of effective legal regulation for countering the spread of a new coronavirus infection are analyzed. The article considers the impact of the pandemic on the development and accelerated implementation of modern digital technologies, improving the digital cyclical legal array.
The results in the research reveals the legal nature of the normative legal array adopted in connection with the spread of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19); there are also conclusions on the formation of new phenomena in law and legal regulation in the context of a coronavirus pandemic and similar crisis situations that may arise in the future, the increasing role of legislation monitoring, law-making and law enforcement practice in order to obtain and study data on the current situation and its development and evaluation in law-making practice in such cases.

Keywords: special legal regime, high-alert regime, regime of emergency, emergency legislation, situational legislation, new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), pandemic, cyclical legal array, legal
forecasting, anticipatory legal regulation, legal technologies, legal monitoring.

For citation: Chernogor N. N., Zaloilo M. V. Metamorphoses of Law and Challenges to Legal Science in the Context of a Coronavirus Pandemic. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 5—26. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.077 (In Russ.)

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Law-Making Systematization of Legal Norms

Valiev R. G.

Kazan (Volga) Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russian Federation
Е-mail: raf.val.111@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.078

Abstract. The study is devoted to the actualization of the issue on the status of systematization of law in the lawmaking structure in the context of its systemic nature.
The purpose of the article is the idea of a systematic understanding of the systematization of the rule of law as structuring. The objectives of the study indicate the existence of the essence, content and forms of systematization of the branch.
The methodological basis of the study is the systematization and legal modeling method, as well as the dualistic, structural-functional, institutional and formal legal approaches.
Proceeding from differentiation of systematization of normative legal acts and systematization of norms of law as different order forms in legal systematization, the article analyzes the essence and content of law-making systematization. The author establishes that the process of developing legal norms is inseparable from their systematization, based on their differentiation and integration, determined by the heterogeneity of the subject of legal regulation. The article shows the system-forming significance of normative legal relations as a logical basis of legislative normative legal integration and indicates the key components of the content of law-making technology. The institutional significance of systematization of legal norms is revealed, expressed in the formation of legal institutions as a result of systematization of legal norms. The theoretical position on the status of legal institutions as the primary form of normative legal integration is substantiated. The conclusion states that updating the systematization of legal norms provides a conceptual understanding of the forms of normative legal integration at the level of normative legal acts and treaties within the national, regional and international legal systems. The proposal is based on the role of law-making systematization in the structural organization of the content of normative legal acts and agreements. It also formulates the need to supplement the draft Law “On normative legal acts in the Russian Federation” and the existing similar laws of Russian constituent entities with a normative prescription containing a criterion for systematization of legal norms at the level of their chapters and sections. The stated theoretical aspects of law-making systematization can be used to evaluate current legislation in order to optimize the structure of regulatory legal acts.

Keywords: legal regulation, lawmaking, system of law, systematization of law, differentiation of law, integration of law, institutionalization of lawmaking, institutions of law.

For citation: Valiev R. G. Law-Making Systematization of Legal Norms. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 27—39. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.078 (In Russ.)

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■ CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. ENTREPRENEURIAL LAW

Features of Ownership Structure and Corporate Governance in a One-Man Company

Sinitsyn S. A.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: synss@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.079

Abstract. The current reform of Russian corporate law shows the impossibility to isolate regulation and development of corporate legal relations in national laws in isolation from the positively proven foreign and international corporate governance practices. The unification of the methods and content of regulation of corporate relations is predetermined by the international development of business and capital. Both in Russian and in foreign law, shortcomings and gaps in the regulation of the status of sole companies are observed. Their assessment in theory is also contradictory. In Russian legislation, without limitation, the creation and economic activity of sole business entities is allowed, but problems remain with the completeness and adequacy of their legal regulation. The most discussed issues include: the possibility, grounds, form and conditions of mutual responsibility of the participant and the sole company for their obligations to external creditors, corporate governance and organization of the bodies of the sole company.
The article sets the goal of considering the legal and economic nature, corporate governance features and the ownership regime of one-person companies in Russian, international and foreign law.
The article uses comparative legal research methods.
The results of the study shows the lack of optimal regulation of one-man companies in modern foreign and international law and the shortcomings of regulation of sole companies in Russian law. The author proposes the understanding of the legal nature of one-man companies as a special kind of corporation.

Keywords: corporate and unitary legal entities, one-man companies, the principle of separation and corporate responsibility in one-man companies.

For citation: Sinitsyn S. A. Features of Ownership Structure and Corporate Governance in a One-Man Company. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 40—51. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.079 (In Russ.)

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Specification of the Norms on the Execution of Corporate Contracts in the Digital Economy

Efimov A. V.

Russian State University of Justice, Moscow 117418, Russian Federation
E-mail: av_efimov@inbox.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.080

Abstract. The article deals with the problems of specification of law, which is aimed at regulating contractual relations that are emerging in the context of building a digital economy. In particular, these relations are characterized by the use of technical means that allow the execution of obligations automatically, without direct human participation (smart contracts). Since this article examines corporate contracts, it seems problematic to adopt special rules not only at the level of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, but also at the level of individual laws on legal entities, what is covered by the concept of specification of law.
In this article the goal is to develop theoretical provisions on the factors and further directions for specification of norms on the execution of corporate contracts in the digital economy. The studied objectives assess the impact of digitalization on the execution of corporate contracts; identify the specifics of corporate contracts and show the benefits of applying to them the design of a smart contract; outline the main directions of specification of norms on the execution of corporate contracts in the digital economy.
For such purposes the author applies both general scientific methods (systemic, functional, group of logical methods (deduction, induction, analysis, synthesis, etc.)) and special legal methods (formal legal, comparative legal, legal modeling method).
As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that the specification of the law in terms of regulating the execution of corporate contracts in the digital economy is due to both new technologies and the specifics of corporate contracts. The author concludes that it is necessary to introduce special regulation both at the level of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and at the level of individual laws that relate to 1) the functioning of oracles, 2) the determining the list of necessary and possible legal consequences of the execution of corporate contracts, 3) the formation of a unified system of disclosure of information on legal entities.

Keywords: specification of law, execution of obligations, digital economy, shareholders' agreement, smart-contract.

For citation: Efimov A. V. Specification of the Norms on the Execution of Corporate Contracts in the Digital Economy. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 52—64. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.080 (In Russ.)

References

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Legally Significant Communication and Deal: An Analysis of Conceptual Approaches to Relation

Povarov Yu. S.

Samara National Research University, Samara 443086, Russian Federation
E-mail: cl-su@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.081

Abstract. The issues of the legally relevant communications nature (first of all, in terms of determining their place in the system of legal facts), which has not received a clear and consistent legislative study, maintains a high degree of polemic in science (a relatively stable consensus, taking into account the direct legislative directive on the occurrence of civil legal consequences in paragraph 1 of the article 1651 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, takes place only in terms of qualifying communications as legal facts).
The main goal of the work is to systematize and critically evaluate various doctrinal approaches regarding the legality and appropriateness of a transactional interpretation of legally relevant communications. By identifying and revealing the key factors complicating the indisputable legal and actual qualification of these acts of communication (universalism of the relevant civil law norms in terms of the variety of relations regulated by them, various interpretations of the essential sign of communication, etc.), the author identifies and systematically analyzes the models of the legal-factual role of communication (message - transaction, message - transaction-like action, etc.).
The importance of the study is defined by the use of such special (particular scientific) methods as formal legal, logical and legal, and legal modeling.
The author considers the concept as the most promising, where the concept of a legally relevant communication provides a generic (collective) character, which implies its use in relation to legal actions of a transactional and other nature, as well as subsidiary application of the provisions of article 1651 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and also for transactions requiring perception (for these transactions, sending a message is the necessary stage of their completion and entry into force).

Keywords: legal fact, legally relevant communication, deal-like act, legal action, deal requiring perception.

For citation: Povarov Yu. S. Legally Significant Communication and Deal: An Analysis of Conceptual Approaches to Relation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 65—77. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.081 (In Russ.)

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■ LABOR LAW AND SOCIAL SECURITY LAW

Problems of Decent Labour Under Atypical Employment

Korshunova T. Yu.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117128, Russian Federation
E-mail: labor@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.082

Abstract. Decent labour is a work carried out by free individuals based on the principle of equal opportunities and non-discrimination in conditions that meet the requirements of safety and hygiene with a fair remuneration, allows employees to lead a decent life, combining the interests of the individual and the interests of the employee. Executing the right to decent work, the employee has the right to state-guaranteed continuing education, and, which is especially important in the digital economy, to retrain so that new technologies are perceived by employees as an incentive for further development, and not an obstacle to getting a job. The right to decent work necessarily includes the execution of collective rights: the participation of workers in managing the organization, the right to create trade unions, to bargain collectively, enter into collective bargaining agreements and participate in the social partnership system at all its levels.
The atypical forms of employment emerged due to changes in the socio-economic situation in the country and the digitalization processes. This requires the adequate legal solutions that allow more flexible regulation of labor relations, use of new legal mechanisms that differ from those traditionally used by labor legislation. The author calls the variety of atypical forms of employment unstable employment, which is characterized by a significant reduction in the social and labor guarantees of workers, but it provides new opportunities for employers to profit. The author examines some forms of precarious employment. It is noted that at present the Russian legislators are faced by the need to rethink the basic concepts of “employee”, “employer”, “labour relationship” so that the work of as many workers as possible meets the criteria for decent work. The article discusses the legal problems of the implementation of the decent work concept in the Russian Federation. The author shows that Russian legislation reacts extremely slowly to the emergence of new forms of precarious employment, such as work on the Internet platforms.
The purpose of the study is to improve the legal mechanisms to implement the concept of decent work, identifying the problems faced by workers and employers in the new digital era. The author's task is to identify what legal methods in the modern world can provide decent work to as many workers as possible.
The methodological basis of the research is made up of universal, general scientific methods, as well as system-structural, formal-legal methods.
The author gives suggestions for improving labour legislation, which will enhance the effectiveness of legal regulation, simplify the mechanisms for establishing the fact of labor relations, which, in turn, will increase the social security of workers. The implementation of the author's proposals allows us to consider the issue of legalizing work in Russia through Internet platforms.

Keywords: decent work, labour relations, atypical employment, precarious employment, Internet platforms, labour relationship, employee, employer.

For citation: Korshunova T. Yu. Problems of Decent Labour Under Atypical Employment. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 78—97. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.082 (In Russ.)

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Zaitseva L. V., Mitryasova A. S. Labour of taxi drivers on the basis of internet platforms: some issues of legal regulation. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2018, no. 435, pp. 239—245. (In Russ.)

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Educational Migration in Russia: Conceptual Issues of Legal Regulation

Shitova N. B.

Nizhny Novgorod branch, National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Nizhny Novgorod 603014, Russian Federation
E-mail: nshitova@hse.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.083

Abstract. The strategy of the 2019-2025 State Migration Policy of the Russian Federation shows, among other policies, an easing of access to educational services for foreign nationals. This goal is twofold. On the one hand, it is meant to improve an unfavourable demographic situation in Russian Federation. On the other hand, there is a need to increase the pace of socio-economic development and to compete for intellectual resources on the international market. However, the legislation does not provide a clear understanding of the strategy for achieving this goal. One of its reasons is an inaccuracy of descriptions of the concepts used in legislation documents related to foreign student migration in Russian Federation. As a result, there is a lack of a systematic approach for legislators to differentiate the legal regulation of different types of educational immigration.
The main purpose of the research is to analyse the scientific terms and legislators description of the educational migration processes considering the State's priorities identified in the strategic planning acts.
The methods used for this research include general scientific methods of cognition, along with systemic and logical methods.
Conclusion. The need to attract educational immigrants to the Russian Federation is reflected in Russian migration legislation. At the same time, the special terminology related to educational migration and related concepts are not set or clarified in the basic legislation acts, and the description of the phenomena of educational immigration occurs without the use of special terms. According to the results of the study, it is a weakness of the current legislation. The usefulness of introducing the concepts of “educational immigration” and the concepts interconnected with it should be recognized. An analysis of the legislation leads to the conclusion that the legislator distinguishes between different types of educational immigration, based on the preference for immigrant status, the duration and purpose of migration, such as study immigration, immigration in order to receive additional professional education, international academic exchange and internships, and international academic mobility.

Keywords: educational migration, migration, migrant policy, international student, foreign citizen, study migration, academic mobility, academic exchange, internship.

For citation: Shitova N. B. Educational Migration in Russia: Conceptual Issues of Legal Regulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 98—111. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.083 (In Russ.)

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■ CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY

Psychoactive Substances: On the Need to Change the Legislative Regulation Approach of the Fight against Drug Addiction

Soktoev Z. B., Tembotova M. A.

Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Moscow 125993, Russian Federation
E-mail: soktoev@gmail.com; tembotova07@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.084

Abstract. Currently, there are two problems that need to be addressed urgently in the fight against drug addiction. First, there are new types of psychoactive substances on the illegal market that are not formally covered by drug crimes. These substances pose a threat to the life and health of people who consume them, in connection with which mass fatalities are recorded, among other things. Secondly, it is necessary to implement measures to shift the focus from penalizing drug users to a real fight against the drug business. In this regard, it is necessary to offer a solution to these problems while simultaneously solving the following tasks: to eliminate the gap in criminal legislation, shift the emphasis on the use of criminal legal means of countering the most dangerous subjects of the drug distribution network, and eliminate excessive repressiveness of criminal law prohibitions.
The implementation of the set goal and formulated tasks is provided by the use of dialectical, logical, comparative legal, formal-dogmatic, and sociological research methods.
In the result, we proposed to exclude from the criminal law notion of new potentially dangerous psychoactive substances, translated into the category of administrative offence, envisaged by article 228, 2283 of the Russian Criminal Code, to supplement the Criminal Code a new rule on liability for illegal manufacture, shipment for the purpose of sale, and sale of potentially harmful psychoactive substances, if the conditions were created for the consumption of these substances without a doctor's prescription. At the same time, potentially dangerous psychoactive substances are understood to be any substances, with the exception of specially named substances, the consumption of which without a doctor's prescription can have a life-threatening, intoxicating or stimulating psychoactive effect on the central nervous system (intoxication).

Keywords: psychoactive substances, criminal responsibility, drug offence, penalization of drug users, drug offences.

For citation: Soktoev Z. B., Tembotova M. A. Psychoactive Substances: On the Need to Change the Legislative Regulation Approach of the Fight against Drug Addiction. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 112—121. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.084

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Zhevlakov E. N. O slozhnostyakh primeneniya st. 2341 UK RF. Ugolovnoe pravo, 2015, no. 6.

Zinov'ev V. V. O neobkhodimosti sovershenstvovaniya ugolovnogo zakonodatel'stva v svyazi s prinyatiem stat'i 2341 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii “Nezakonnyy oborot novykh potentsial'no opasnykh psikhoaktivnykh veshchestv”. Narkokontrol', 2015, no. 2.

Criminal-Legal Means of Countering Fraud in the Sphere of Entrepreneurial Activity

Koshaeva T. O.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117128, Russian Federation
E-mail: crim@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.085

Abstract. The relevance of the research topic is related to the criminal problem of antagonism one of the most common types of crimes against property - fraud. Fraud in the sphere of entrepreneurial activity attracts the attention of specialists due to the novelty of the norm, creating liability for such crime, which involves deliberate failure to fulfill contractual obligations. The article discusses some issues related to the identification of the most complex legislative structures in order to improve and effectively apply the rules of a special type of fraud in practice.
The review of the studied literature and the author's position consists in determining some conclusions about criminal liability for fraud in the sphere of entrepreneurial activity as an independent crime, distinguished from other types of fraud. This conclusion of the author is based on the study of the material related to the subject of research, such as the concept of entrepreneurial activity, law of obligations, and enforcement of contract terms and other. Attention is paid to the definition of harm inflicted to victims of fraud in the sphere of entrepreneurial activity, namely the value of stolen property, as well as the types of penalties, established by the criminal law for such a crime against property.

Keywords: criminal law, crimes against property, liability for fraud in the sphere of entrepreneurial activity.

For citation: Koshaeva T. O. Criminal-Legal Means of Countering Fraud in the Sphere of Entrepreneurial Activity. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 122—132. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.085 (In Russ.)

References

Bezverkhov A. G. Imushchestvennye prestupleniya. Samara, 2002.

Borovkov A. A. Moshennichestvo v sfere predprinimatel'skoy deyatel'nosti. Moscow, 2019.

Gaukhman L. D. Kvalifikatsiya prestupleniy: zakon, teoriya, praktika. Moscow, 2013.

Lopashenko N. A. Razmyshleniya ob ugolovnom prave. Printsipy ugolovnogo zakonodatel'stva. Ugolovnyy zakon. Prestuplenie, prostupok i sostav prestupleniya. Moscow, 2020.

Prestupnost' i pravonarusheniya (2014—2018 goda): statisticheskiy sbornik. Moscow, 2019.

Savchenko V. E. Predprinimatel'stvo v Rossii: sushchnost' i organizatsionnye formy. St. Petersburg, 1996.

Sostoyanie prestupnosti v Rossii za I polugodie 2019 goda. MVD RF. Moscow, 2019.

Tyunin V. Nekotorye voprosy tolkovaniya i primeneniya norm o spetsial'nykh vidakh moshennichestva. Ugolovnoe pravo, 2015, no. 5.

■ ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL LAW

Positions of the Russian State: Concept and Classification

Vinokurov V. A.

Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia, St. Petersburg 196105, Russian Federation
E-mail: pravo.kaf_tigp@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.086

Abstract. In modern Russian legislation, there is no single concept of positions established for the state to perform its functions, that is, if we speak generically, for the positions of the Russian state. The variety of normative legal acts that provide for various state positions and civil service positions, the lack of a common definition and classification for them, has led to the need to analyze the existing legal framework and understand a significant number of positions that are called state positions of the Russian Federation, starting with the post of the President of the Russian Federation, and state positions of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation in public authorities of all branches (legislative, executive and judicial), as well as in state bodies that are not related to state authorities. In order to analyze and prepare proposals, we first analyzed the norms of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, as well as federal laws that introduce state positions of the Russian Federation in our country.
The purpose of the research is to develop proposals for improving modern Russian legislation in terms of forming legally sound concepts related to the positions of the Russian state (state positions and civil service positions) both at the federal level and at the level of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.
Research methods: empirical and theoretical.
The author classifies the existing state positions in the Russian Federation, develops and proposes definitions of the concepts "position of the Russian state", "state position" and "public service position", and also expresses the opinion that it is necessary to adopt a separate federal law on positions of the Russian state.

Keywords: Constitution of the Russian Federation, public authorities, public bodies, President of the Russian Federation, Federation Council, State Duma, Government of the Russian Federation, public office, position the state service, the position of the Russian state, election, appointment.

For citation: Vinokurov V. A. Positions of the Russian State: Concept and Classification. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 133—143. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.086 (In Russ.)

References

Avak'yan S. A. Konstitutsionnoe pravo Rossii. Uchebnyy kurs. 4th ed. Moscow, 2010. Vol. 1.

Bobrov A. M., Telegin A. S. Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba inykh vidov: ponyatie i ee osobennosti. Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2018, no. 9.

Grishkovets A. A. Legal status of the Bank of Russia employees. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2000, no. 12, pp. 52—64. (In Russ.)

Kobzanenko V. A. Inye vidy gosudarstvennoy sluzhby — pravookhranitel'naya sluzhba: zakon i doktrina. Aktual'nye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2018, no. 9.

Shaykhatdinov V. Sh. K voprosu o gosudarstvennoy sluzhbe inykh vidov. Biznes, menedzhment i pravo, 2016, no. 3—4.

Vinokurov V. A. Gosudarstvennoe pravo Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Kurs lektsiy v konspektivnom izlozhenii. St. Petersburg, 2017.

Fiscal Interests of the State in Optimizing the Tax Regime for Attracting Investment

Ledneva Yu. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117128, Russian Federation
Е-mail: ulivik@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.087

Abstract. Currently, in the Russian Federation, there is an acute problem of increasing investment attractiveness in order for a private investor to invest money in investment objects in which society and the state are interested. Stipulated by the legislation on taxes and fees the tax support provided by private investors, characterized by diversity and a large number that requires analysis and systematization, considering that due to optimization of tax regimes generated a shortfall in revenues of budgets of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation and thus there is a risk of violation of the state's fiscal interests.
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the measures of tax support provided by the legislation of the Russian Federation for private investment entities from the point of view of accounting and compliance with the fiscal interests of the state. Research objectives: to analyze the legislation of the Russian Federation in order to establish tax support measures for investment entities; to consider preferential tax legal regimes for certain categories of taxpayers-investment entities; identify the risks of violating the fiscal interests of the state when granting tax preferences to private investors; evaluate the budgetary and legal institution of tax expenditures from the position of minimizing the risks of violating the fiscal interests of the state.
The methodological basis of the research is based on General scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization, logical, system; and special methods: formal-legal, comparative-legal.
Based on the research, it is concluded that in the absence of systematic provision of tax support measures to investment entities in the Russian legislation and the newly emerging practice of accounting and evaluating such measures within the framework of the budgetary and legal Institute of tax expenditures, there are risks of violating the fiscal interests of the state. Measures to minimize such risks are proposed.

Keywords: fiscal interest of the state, investments, taxpayers, subjects of investment activity, optimization of the tax regime, tax preferences, tax benefits, tax expenses of public legal education, risk.

For citation: Ledneva Yu. V. Fiscal Interests of the State in Optimizing the Tax Regime for Attracting Investment. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 144—157. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.087 (In Russ.)

References

Drugova Yu. V. Ispol'zovanie byudzhetnykh sredstv kommercheskimi organizatsiyami: pravovoy aspekt. Zakonodatel'stvo i ekonomika, 2003, no. 1.

Emel'yanov A. S. Gosudarstvennaya podderzhka investitsionnoy deyatel'nosti i zakonodatel'stvo o nalogakh i sborakh: osobennosti nalogooblozheniya pri realizatsii regional'nykh investitsionnykh proektov. Reformy i pravo, 2016, no. 2.

Gorbunova O. N. Izbrannoe. Moscow, 2017.

Gromov V. V. Vnutrennyaya nalogovaya konkurentsiya: sushchnost', osobennosti, regulirovanie v RF. Nalogi, 2020, no. 1.

Investitsii v natsional'nom i mezhdunarodnom prave: balans chastnykh i publichnykh interesov: sbornik materialov k XIV Ezhegodnym nauchnym chteniyam pamyati professora S. N. Bratusya. Moscow, 2019.

Ivanov V. V., Luk'yanova N. G., Pytel' N. A. Otsenka nalogovykh l'got v RF: regional'nye aspekty. Finansy, 2017, no. 6.

Khabrieva T. Y. National interests and legislative priorities of Russia. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2005, no. 12, pp. 19—29. (In Russ.)

Kopina A. A. Ogranicheniya nalogovoy optimizatsii pri droblenii biznesa. Nalogi, 2017, no. 17.

Kucherov I. I. Teoriya nalogov i sborov (pravovye aspekty): monografiya. Moscow, 2009.

Kudryashova E. V. Problemy nalogovogo administrirovaniya krupneyshikh nalogoplatel'shchikov. Nalogovye spory: teoriya i praktika, 2006, no. 3.

Kudryashova E. V. Yurisdiktsiya (suverenitet) gosudarstv i nalogovyy immunitet v oblasti kosvennogo nalogooblozheniya. Finansovoe pravo, 2005, no. 10.

Ledneva I. Use of the Concept of the Actual Right to Income at the Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation. Tax sovereignty and the concept of fiscal rule-making in the countries of central and Eastern Europe. Conference Proceedings. Voronezh, 2018.

Ledneva Yu. V. Planirovanie publichnykh finansov kak uslovie obespecheniya finansovoy bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Finansovoe pravo, 2018, no. 11.

Orlova O. E. L'goty dlya uchastnikov regional'nykh investitsionnykh proektov. Stroitel'stvo: bukhgalterskiy uchet i nalogooblozhenie, 2019, no. 11.

Povetkina N. A. Legal Means of Provision of Financial Sustainability of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 6, pp. 31—36. (In Russ.)

Riski finansovoy bezopasnosti: pravovoy format. Ed. by I. I. Kucherov, N. A. Povetkina. Moscow, 2018.

Vasil'eva N. V. Publichnye dokhody v Rossiyskoy Federatsii: finansovo-pravovoy aspekt. Ed. by E. Yu. Gracheva. Moscow, 2017.

■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW

Ensuring Public and State Security in the Framework of Integration Associations in the Post-Soviet Space

Pavlinov A. V.

University of Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
E-mail: andrey_pavlinov@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.088

Abstract. The state policy of combating extremism and terrorism is an important part of ensuring public, state and national security in the CIS countries. Due to objective circumstances, the Russian legal concept and mechanism of anti-terrorism became the starting point for their national anti-terrorist legislation.
The article notes the special contribution of the CIS program documents to the formation of an international anti-extremist strategy. It is emphasized that the development of economic integration processes and the formation of a single Eurasian economic space will contribute to the coordination of criminal policy in the field of counterterrorism and the formation of its unified approaches in the CIS, CSTO, and EEU States. 
The author discusses a number of issues of legislative support of the fight against extremism and terrorism in the framework of integration associations in the post-Soviet space: contradictions between the content of the term "terrorist activity" in the anti-terrorism act and the criminal code, a mismatch reason for the introduction of the counterterrorist operation the purpose of such an operation, the obsolescence of goal-setting composition of the terrorist act in most articles of the criminal code of CIS countries. Conclusions are drawn that the process of forming anti-extremist (anti-terrorist) national legislation should be derived from international legal acts of a universal and regional nature, and that it is necessary to take as a basis not only the Russian, but also the legal achievements of other post-Soviet States.
It is pointed out that modern extremists are most active both on the Internet and outside the territory of Russia and other CIS countries - in Syria or in places of detention.
The author notes the role of the collective legislator of the CIS, acting ahead of the curve in the prevention of extremism and terrorism. The article analyzes the current legislative process in the CIS Interparliamentary Assembly related to the development of a draft model law "on national security" and recommendations for improving and harmonizing national legislation on research of information materials with signs of extremism.

Keywords: state, public, national security, antiterrorism, violent extremism, CIS model legislation, unification and harmonization of legislation, international legal acts, antiterrorist legislation, criminal codes, components of terrorist activity, the basis of a counterterrorist operation, the purpose of a terrorist act, the law enforcement aspect of antiterrorism, prevention of extremism and terrorism, economic integration processes, law-making process in the IPA CIS.

For citation: Pavlinov A. V. Ensuring Public and State Security in the Framework of Integration Associations in the Post-Soviet Space. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 158—169. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.088 (In Russ.)

References 

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Druzhba nalogov. Rossiya i Belarus' namereny v 2021 godu pereyti na edinyy Nalogovyy kodeks i ne tol'ko. Kommersant, 2019, September 16.

Fedorov A. V., Sergeev D. N. Osnovnye tendentsii mezhdunarodnogo terrorizma i mery bor'by s nim. Rossiyskiy sledovatel', 2016, no. 24.

Pavlinov A. V. Nasil'stvennyy ekstremizm. Moscow, 2004.

Shmarov I. V. Ugolovno-pravovaya politika i ee vliyanie na formirovanie ugolovnogo zakonodatel'stva. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 1998, no. 6, pp. 10—17.

V Tadzhikistane v rezul'tate bunta v kolonii pogibli bolee 30 chelovek. Kommersant, 2019, May 20.

Volevodz A. G., Alizade V. A. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye podkhody k protivodeystviyu ekstremizmu: material'no pravovye i protsessual'nye aspekty. Mezhdunarodnoe ugolovnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnaya yustitsiya, 2018, no. 6.

Indirect International Jurisdiction in the Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments of 2019 (Part I)

Shchukin A. I.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: pil@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.089

Abstract. As a results of the 22nd diplomatic session of the Hague Conference on Private International Law in 2019, the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judicial Decisions in Civil and Commercial Matters was signed. Until recently, the absence of a universal international treaty that would enforce the decisions of national courts in foreign countries, negatively affected the attractiveness of state justice as a mechanism for resolving disputes with a foreign element. The adopted Convention is intended to fill this gap. The main aim of the Convention is to create a predictable and effective regime for cross-border circulation of court decisions in civil-law cases. The Convention has the goal to ensure access to justice, is designed to reduce the costs of the parties and the risks associated with the implementation of international trade and investment activities and, as a result, to increase the attractiveness of resolving cross-border disputes by state courts.
Despite the fact that a number of categories of cases are excluded from the scope of the Convention (family disputes, insolvency and intellectual property disputes), the instruments of the Convention are universal and fully regulate the procedure for recognition and enforcement of decisions of foreign courts, ensuring their mobility through judicial cooperation. In particular, the document indicates the grounds for both recognition and enforcement of decisions, and grounds for refusing to issue an exequatur.
Currently, many countries are considering joining the Convention. Along with Uruguay, Ukraine became the second state to join the Convention. In February 2020, the European Commission a consultation process on accession to the European Union (EU) Convention has been started. As noted, EU accession to the Convention will meet the goals set out in the principles for the next European Commission (2019-2024): in particular, goals related to an economy that works “for the benefit of people”. Among them are expanding access to justice for businesses and EU citizens through a mechanism that facilitates the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments around the world, where the debtor has assets. The EU actively participated in the negotiation process, and the results of the negotiations reflect its political interests.
The article analyzes the provisions of the Convention relating to one of the central issues considered in the case of recognition and enforcement of foreign court decisions - the issue of indirect international jurisdiction. The Convention sets out a list of grounds for jurisdiction, thereby creating an international obligation to recognize and enforce decisions made in accordance with these jurisdictional criteria.

Keywords: Hague Judgments Convention of 2 July 2019, indirect international jurisdiction, jurisdictional criterion (filter), recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, exequatur.

For citation: Shchukin A. I. Indirect International Jurisdiction in the Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments of 2019 (Part I). Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 7, pp. 170—186. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.089 (In Russ.)

References

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Khlestova I. O., Shchukin A. I. Recognition and Enforcement of Insolvency-Related Judgments in the Light of the UNCITRAL Model Law 2018. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 122—139. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.009 (In Russ.)

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