A. V. Kornev
Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Moscow 125993, Russian Federation
Abstract. This publication is, to some extent, a continuation of the research conducted by the author in the article “On the certain features of legal science and the search for law” (Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10). It is devoted to the normativity of law and the normative theory of law, which is not quite correctly called positivist. The article substantiates the thesis about the normative nature of law, which objectively follows from its nature as the most effective regulator of social relations. Thus, “alternative” approaches to understanding law, ultimately, also have a normative content, if one tries to consider them in more detail. It is argued that any other types of legal thinking can have a serious theoretical basis. But as far as the practical side of the matter is concerned, their inconsistency is obvious. Not a single approach to understanding law is capable of creating a categorical apparatus applicable in real legal life. Due to this circumstance, all types of understanding of law, ultimately, use the categories and constructions developed in the classical schools of normativity and positivism. Taking this into account, it is possible with a high degree of probability to predict the relevance of the normative theory of law in the near historical perspective, especially in the context of the “digitalization and technologization” of law.
Keywords: norm, normativity, science, law, legal thinking.
For citation: Kornev A. V. Normativeness of Law and Normativism in Law: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives of Individual Law Schools. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 5—18. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.143
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N. V. Putilo, N. S. Volkova
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Abstract. The article studies the practice of using the term " Nanny state" in Russian and foreign literature. As a rule, these are publications related to the fields of sociology, political science, and economics. The work attempts to highlight the content, which includes sources embedded in the corresponding concept and uses the terminological apparatus of legal science. It identifies its legally significant elements. The article is based on a retrospective analysis of the sources of law and legal doctrine of the end of the 19th Century. Therefore, it identifies those types of the state, which, according to their individual characteristics, can be compared with the state of the conditional type "Nanny state", namely: a police state, a welfare state and a paternalistic state.
The purpose of the article is to show the importance of theoretical and legal identification of the “Nanny state” phenomenon based on the analysis of foreign experience and Russian practice by correlating the features of the “Nanny state” type with the features of a welfare state, a police state and a paternalistic state.
The methodology combines formal legal analysis of the text of regulatory legal acts and methods of system analysis, forecasting and modelling, as well as the comparative legal method as the basis of the study.
The research results are: the systematic characteristics of the “Nanny state” phenomenon are given; shows the history of the introduction into publicistic use of the corresponding term and its use; the directions of doctrinal comprehension of the phenomenon of "Nanny state" in the framework of theoretical and legal science, taking into account the historical experience and data of other sciences; gives a predictive description of those changes in actual relations in connection with the expansion of the number of legal regulation spheres, in which the approaches are typical for the state in terms of the conditional type “Nanny state”. As a result, it is concluded that the use of the term “Nanny State” testifies to the emergence of a new type of state, in which the features of both the police state and the social state are combined, but by its nature the “Nanny state” is a special form of implementation of the principle of state paternalism.
Keywords: "Nanny state", welfare state, paternalism, police state, rule of law, freedom of choice, personal rights, responsibility, social rights.
For citation: Putilo N. V., Volkova N. S. The “Nanny state” Phenomenon: A New Kind of State or a Modification of State Paternalism in Modern Conditions? Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 19—31. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.144
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S. V. Polenina, N. V. Silchenko
S. V. Poleninaa, N. V. Silchenkob
aInstitute of State and Law, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119019, Russian Federation
bBelarusian State University, Minsk 220030, Republic of Belarus
Abstract. Technical normative legal acts in digital reality conditions have a significant impact to the content and form of law. However understanding this group of sources of law is not clear due to the issue of regulation sphere. Its place is in normative technical documents system and technical legislation system.
To solve these goals, the article is based on the dialectical method, means and methods of systems analysis, typology and classification methods.
Technical normative legal acts form a special group of formal sources of law and regulate technical relations, i.e. public relations, which are fold under the impact of “technical components”. On basic typological parameters technical normative legal acts are included in the system of normative legal acts. Set of technical normative legal acts form technical legislation, which integral part is legislation on technical regulation. Carcass of technical regulation forms technical legal acts, which unite around such thematic pillars as standardization, conformity assessment, metrology and ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Technical relations regulated by technical legislation are part of the subject of legal regulation of various branches of law and legislation, as a result of which technical legislation is a special regulatory and legal array. In the context of the rapid development of technical legislation, the formation of the law of the Eurasian Economic Union, it is necessary to strengthen the hierarchy and coordination in this regulatory array. Thus, the transformation of the Federal Law "On Technical Regulation" into a consolidated codified act is possible.
Keywords: technical relations, normative technical documents, technical normative legal acts, technical legislation, technical regulations, standards, law.
For citation: Polenina S. V., Silchenko N. V. Technical Normative Legal Acts in the System of Formal Sources of Modern Law. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 32—42. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.145
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V. K. Andreev
Scientific Center for the Study of Justice Problems, Russian State University of Justice, Moscow 117418, Russian Federation
Abstract. The article examines the features of the implementation of corporate rights of a business entity in comparison with their acquisition as a stage in the development of subjective civil law. The possibility of using electronic and other technological means is studied when exercising rights to participate in the equity capital of a non-public joint stock company, transactions with digital financial assets, utilitarian digital rights. The study of the implementation of civil and corporate rights of a legal entity is carried out on the basis of the latest legislation in order to discover novelties that allow substantiating new theoretical conclusions.
The study uses the method of comparative analysis, formal logical and inductive methods.
The inclusion of corporate relations in the scope of civil legislation has finally confirmed the understanding of the essence of a legal entity not only as a participant in civil transactions, but also as a subject of managing its activities. Management in a corporation means that the general meetings of its members, other bodies of the corporation acquire civil rights and take on civic duties for the corresponding legal entity. The highest body of the corporation, characterized in the article 1811 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation as a civil legal community, embodies corporate governance, which includes the sole and collegial bodies of a legal entity. The introduction of digital technologies in civil turnover and in the process of managing the activities of a legal entity leads to the coincidence in time of acquisition (emergence) and implementation of the same subjective civil law in relation to utilitarian digital law or digital financial asset. Digital currency, being a means of payment, is not tied to a specific monetary obligation and refers to property expressed in digital designation, but is not recognized as digital right, since it is not designated as such in the law.
Keywords: civil law of a legal entity, corporate law of a participant, acquisition and exercise of civil rights, peculiarities of exercising corporate rights, general meeting of corporation participants, exercising rights under transactions with digital rights, digital currency.
For citation: Andreev V. K. Applying Electronic Communication Means for Exercising Civil and Corporate Rights. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 43—53. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.146
Andreev V. K. Application of Digital Technologies in the Activity of a Legal Entity: Theoretical Background. Rossiyskoe pravosudie, 2020, no. 6, pp. 52—59. (In Russ.)
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M. P. Imekova
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russian Federation
Abstract. In foreign countries, biobank has more than 30 years of history. However, unlike foreign countries, biobanks are created relatively recently in Russia. Moreover, the development of bio-banking in our country occurs in the absence of the necessary legislative framework.
The purpose of this study is to determine the place of biobank in the system of rights under the legislation of the Russian Federation. The objectives of the study are: a) to establish the features of the legal regulation of public relations arising from bio-banks in foreign countries, especially in the EU countries; b) analyze the norms of Russian legislation regarding the activities of biobanks; c) analyze the position of domestic scientists regarding the legal nature of biobank elements; d) substantiate recommendations for improving Russian legislation in the field of bio-banking.
The methodological basis of the study is general scientific methods of cognition (methods of deduction and induction, methods of analysis and synthesis), as well as private scientific methods (comparative legal method, formal legal method).
The author comes to the conclusion that from the norms of civil legislation of the Russian Federation standpoint, a biobank is a complex object consisting of two interconnected elements: (a) a collection of biological materials (things) and (b) a database. Each of the aforementioned biobank elements has specifics that go beyond the limits of civil law regulation. In this regard, either a change in existing legislative acts or the adoption of a new act, in which this specificity would be reflected, is required.
Keywords: biobank, biological material, database, big data, privacy secrets, personal data.
For citation: Imekova M. P. Biobank as an Object of Rights. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 54—65. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.147
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N. V. Rubtsova
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, Novosibirsk 630099, Russian Federation
Abstract. Traditionally, entrepreneurial activity is studied from the perspective of economic and legal analysis. At the same time, the harmonious development of society as a coordinated integrated system is impossible without the development of social relations, and entrepreneurial activity, being a social type of activity, contributes to the development of a social state. The axiological approach to entrepreneurial activity becomes possible when entrepreneurial activity was regarded as a public good.
We use the general scientific dialectic method of cognition and the following particular scientific methods arising from it, such as logical, system-structural, comparative, technical and legal.
The axiological analysis of law allows us to justify the value of entrepreneurial activity not only for entrepreneurs themselves, but also for the whole society, since it contributes to the development of market relations. The objectives of this work are not only to determine and justify the significance of such an analysis, but also to a systematic study of social entrepreneurship and the positive social responsibility of business.
Entrepreneurship is the foundation that provides a balance of public and private interests. In addition, axiological analysis allows exploring the basic principles of entrepreneurial activity and, above all, the freedom of its implementation, which can be understood not only as a principle, but also as an independent value, legal claim. Moreover, the very understanding of law as freedom within the framework of the libertarian approach corresponds to a special place of the principle of freedom of business in the system of principles of economic law. Also, the axiological analysis would be incomplete without mentioning the social responsibility of the business, which can be considered as a special type of legal responsibility. The social responsibility of business is understood as voluntarily assigned to the entrepreneur social obligations related to certain social assistance and participation in social support programs by the state and society. Thus, the axiological analysis of entrepreneurial activity should not be reduced only to the study of individual assessment categories, but also include a characteristic of the specifics of the entrepreneur's social responsibility.
Keywords: axiology, responsibility, entrepreneurial activity, freedom.
For citation: Rubtsova N. V. The Legal Nature of Entrepreneurial Activity: An Axiological Approach. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 66—77. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.148
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N. L. Lyutov
N. L. Lyutova, b
aKutafin Moscow State Law University, Moscow 125993, Russian Federation
bSchool of Industrial Psychology and Human Resource Management, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2531, Republic of South Africa
Abstract. In June 2020, in the context of the spread of the COVID-19, three draft laws regulating the issues of telework were submitted to the State Duma simultaneously. The article discusses the most well-known initiative on amending the legislation on telework proposed by the “United Russia” party. It is expected that after adoption in the fall of 2020 the draft law can lead to significant changes to the current Chapter of the Labor code of the Russian Federation concerning remote work.
In the context of foreign experience and international labor standards, the article discusses the main innovations of the draft law. They relate to the allocation of certain types of remote work: a) remote work as it is currently regulated by the Labor Code; b) temporary remote work and c) combined remote work. The paper analyzes proposals for simplifying the procedure for electronic communication between remote employees and employers. A special attention is paid to the problem of establishing the right of a remote employee not to be in permanent communication with the employer (the so-called "right to be offline"), which in the future should be extended to all employees, regardless the type of employment contract. The article also touches on the discussion concerning the exclusion of the current possibility to include additional grounds for dismissal on the initiative of the employer in employment contracts with remote employees.
Additionally, the article analyzes other gaps related to the legal regulation of remote labor that are not included in the draft considered by the State Duma, such as transnational telework and norms dealing with the collective labor rights of teleworkers.
Keywords: employment relations, remote work, law-making initiatives, atypical employment, digital economy.
For citation: Lyutov N. L. The Legislative Initiatives Regarding the Remote Work: A Temporary Pandemic Turmoil or Sustainable Trend? Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 78—88. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.149
Chernykh N. V. Influence of atypical forms of employment on theoretical ideas about labor relations (on the example of norms on distance labor). Actual Problems of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 108—117. (In Russ.)
Chernykh N. V. Labor legislation of Russia vs coronavirus: who will win? Actual Problems of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 155—156. (In Russ.)
Chesalina O. Social and Labour Rights of “New” Self-Employed Persons (and in Particular Self-Employed Platform Workers) in Russia. Russian Law Journal, 2020, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 49—78.
Chesalina O. V. From non-standard forms of employment to work on the basis of Internet platforms. Trudovoe pravo v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2018, no. 1, pp. 22—25. (In Russ.)
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French workers win legal right to avoid checking work email out-of-hours. The Guardian. 31 December 2016. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/money/2016/dec/31/frenchworkers-win-legal-right-to-avoid-checking-work-email-out-of-hours.
Golovina S. Yu. Enhancing the Differentiation of the Russian Labour Legislation. Russian Law: theory and practice, 2014, no. 2, pp. 86—94.
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Kirillova L. S., Lushnikov A. M., Lushnikova M. V. The Realization of the Concept of Flexicurity in Atypical Employment Relationships. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 2016, vol. 19. Special Issue, pp. 69—75.
Korshunova T. Yu. Remote Work Agreement as a Way to Formalize Atypical Labour Relations. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 2, pp. 112—125. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.021 (In Russ.)
Lyutov N. L., Voitkovskaya I. V. Taxi Drivers who work through online platforms: what are the legal consequences of “uberization” of labor? Actual Problems of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 17—24. (In Russ.)
Lyutov N. L. The Transformation of Employment Relations and New Forms of Employment in Digital Economy. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 7, pp. 115—130. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.7.10
Migliorato L. Culturing Boundaries: The Right to be Offline. The Tecnoskeptic. 22 March, 2017. Available at: https://thetechnoskeptic.com/culturing-boundaries/.
Pabilonia S. W., Vernon V. Telework and Time Use in the United States. Preprint. May 2020. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25722.11204.
Ryzhenkova Yu. Profsoyuzy predlagayut vvesti rekomendatsii po organizatsii truda v usloviyakh pandemii. Solidarnost', 2020, March 20. Available at: https://www.solidarnost.org/news/profsoyuzy-predlagayut-vvesti-rekomendatsii-po-organizacii-truda-v-usloviyahpandemii.html.
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N. V. Antonova, O. Yu. Eremina
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Abstract. The strategic goals and tasks facing the Russian Federation in modern conditions of scientific and technological development are partly predetermined by the process of formation of a legal social state. The traditional challenges for Russia's social policy, due to the high level of poverty, a gradual increase in life expectancy and an aging population, unstable demographic realities, have not lost their relevance. This requires a rethinking of established approaches to the implementation of the social function of the Russian state, which manifests itself mainly through the system of social protection and social security.
As any social right, the right to social security has an “octroated” status, when formally guaranteed benefits are provided to citizens in need only if the economic situation is favorable and the political vector is socially oriented. That is why it is so important to establish economic guarantees of social rights - social guidelines (norms, standards) at the constitutional level and in Federal legislation in compliance with the principle of equality.
There is no unity in Russian and foreign legislation on the use of social standards, and there are suggestions about the need to raise such a standard for all types of social payments in Russia as the minimum consumer budget. At the same time, the subsistence minimum should become a protective barrier (acceptable minimum) on the way to poverty for socially vulnerable categories of people, provided mainly from the state budget. It is noted that at this stage Russia is ready to adopt the Council of Europe's social protection system as a basis for structural alignment of social norms (standards). This is achievable thanks to legislative guidelines on the European Social Charter and the European Code of Social Security. The possibility of applying the norms of international law in the national legal system along with other formal legal criteria of the social state in this case is one of the necessary principles for the proper implementation of the social functions of the Russian state.
Keywords: social state, social functions of the state, social protection and social security, social guidelines (standards, norms), minimum wage, subsistence level, poverty level, indexation of social benefits, population policy.
For citation: Antonova N. V., Eremina O. Yu. Social Functions of the State: New Vectors of Development. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 89—102. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.150
Antonova N. V. On the role of a fixed payment to an insurance pension in establishing a sufficient level of pension provision for working citizens. Russian and international law: general and special: materials of the All-Russian scientific and practical conference in memory of prof. F. M. Rudinsky. Moscow, 2019. 566 p. (In Russ.)
Antonova N. V. Role of Social Guidance in Determining the Level of Security of Russian Citizens Benefits from the State Budget Taking into Account the Experience of Belarus and Kazakhstan. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2018, no. 3 (70), pp. 179—186. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art.2018.3.24
Antonova N. V. The Social Child Allowance: Some Regulatory Issues. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 3 (255), pp. 66—75. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_3_6
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Eremina O. Yu. Legal Regulation of Maternity Capital: Practice and Development Prospects. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 5 (257), pp. 125—138. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_5_12
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Pashentsev D. A., Zaloilo M. V. Overcoming Poverty in Russia: Historical Experience and Modern Trends of Legal Regulation. Obrazovanie i pravo, 2018, no. 9, pp. 317—323. (In Russ.)
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Putilo N. V. Legal Criteria of the Welfare State: New Approaches. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 10, pp. 15—25. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/21519
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Social protection of the family: improving the mechanism of legal regulation. Ed. by O. N. Petyukova. Moscow, 2015. 176 p. (In Russ.)
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P. A. Guk, P. V. Korshunova
Penza State University, Penza 440026, Russian Federation
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Abstract. The article examines such feature of justice as the unity of judicial practice in its connection with the basic values of justice. As an essential element of the legal life of the state, justice must be of high quality, and judicial practice must be characterized by signs of stability, certainty, predictability, uniformity and unity. Justice is a legal and socially significant institution with its own legal and social values. The search for new means of ensuring the legal and social values of justice in the process of ensuring the unity of judicial practice is becoming an urgent direction in the exercise of judicial power. The lack of special research on the specifics of the implementation and significance of the unity of modern judicial practice, including in Russia, determines the relevance and necessity of studying this topic.
The authors aim to conduct a theoretical and legal analysis of the unity of judicial practice as a special value of justice. The goal is achieved by studying the General understanding of the category “value”, studying the system of justice values, substantiating the concept, essence, meaning of the unity of judicial practice, and identifying common patterns of the impact of uniform law enforcement on the implementation and maintenance of justice values. The implementation of these goals and objectives is carried out by analyzing the norms of the current Federal legislation, materials of judicial practice and provisions of the legal doctrine.
The methodological basis is represented by such methods as dialectical, comparative-legal, formal-legal, and system-structural.
As a result of the research, the essence and significance of the unity of judicial practice and its impact on uniform law enforcement in the administration of justice are determined.
Keywords: unity of judicial practice, justice, legal certainty, legal system, judicial practice, judicial doctrine, legal proceedings, values of justice.
For citation: Guk P. A., Korshunova P. V. Unity of Judicial Practice as the Distinctive Value of Justice. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 103—118. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.151
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V. V. Argunov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation
Abstract. The article deals with the development of legislation on certain categories of cases that make up the legal block “special (non-contentious) proceedings”, which have been fixed in the Russian procedural legislation.
In order to identify specific gaps and contradictions in the procedural law, the approaches and characteristic features of the legal regulation of domestic special proceedings in the Civil procedure, Arbitration procedure codes and the code of administrative procedure of the Russian Federation and the implementation of their norms in court proceedings are studied.
The characteristics of the national legal regulation of special proceedings are shown on the basis of historical, systematic, comparative methods as well as method of simulation, which uses the formal-dogmatic and legal-political approach. They are: 1) substantial nexus with substantive law, the application of which is mediated by the procedural rules on special proceedings; 2) the predominance of special procedural rules governing separate categories of cases; 3) the absence of general procedural rules at the level of the entire unit “special (non-contentious) proceedings”, and at the level of groups of similar cases of special proceedings; 4) “instability” in the set of cases in a particular order, changing the court's jurisdiction in this area.
The above-mentioned regularities and trends in the development of such legal regulation are a favorable environment for the formation of specific gaps and contradictions in both procedural and substantive law. There is a tendency to transfer many gaps in modern procedural law from Soviet and pre-revolutionary law. A new type of gaps, previously not typical for special proceedings and due to the excessive casuistry of modern procedural legislation, is identified: double regulation of certain categories of cases of the same type in the procedural codes, with the simultaneous absence of procedural rules for other cases provided for in substantive law. The concept of filling in gaps and smoothing out existing contradictions in the regulation of special proceedings based on the unification of the procedure for consideration of certain categories of cases is proposed; based on the details of the General rules on special production.
Keywords: civil process, commercial process, administrative proceedings, General and special legal norms, special (non-contentious) proceedings, gaps in procedural law.
For citation: Argunov V. V. Interaction of General and Special Rules and Institutions in Civil and Commercial Procedural Law (on the Example of Cases of Special (Non-Contentious) Proceedings). Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 119—134. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.152
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A. R. Sultanov
PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim, Nizhnekamsk 423574, Russian Federation
Abstract. Currently, the procedural codes do not explicitly allow the situation where evidence showing a lie appeared after the decision came into force, since it is most often rejected by the courts as new evidence that cannot be considered as a revision due to newly discovered circumstances.
In this study, the author analyzes the causes of the situation and considers as a solution to the problem the possibility of reviewing a judicial act based on false data. The author analyzes, among other things, the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on judicial errors, the practice of international judicial institutions to resolve the situation with fraud. This analysis was carried out with the aim of finding the most simple and effective means of protection against lies in the process of how to make a lie unprofitable.
Historical, logical, systemic, formal-legal, as well as comparative legal methods were used.
Results, brief conclusions: according to the author, a court decision based on a lie cannot generate legal certainty, since an erroneous court decision cannot be considered as a fair act of justice and must be corrected. The possibility of resuming production if a lie is detected should become one of the means of countering lies in the process and will comply with the principle of maintaining confidence in the state. Accordingly, the right of the court to review its decision when the decision was based on deception can be called the" inherent right" of the court, which also serves as a means of self-defense against unscrupulous persons.
Keywords: lies, review, civil proceedings.
For citation: Sultanov A. R. Deliberate Misrepresentation of the Circumstances of the Case by a Party in a Civil Procedure: Legal Consequences and Methods of Prevention. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 135—146. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.153
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I. V. Kholikov, V. A. Okocha
I. V. Kholikova, V. A. Okochab
aInstitute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
bMilitary University, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow 123001, Russian Federation
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Abstract. Today, maritime piracy and the closely related problem of terrorism are a serious global threat, primarily for countries that have access to the open sea and the World Ocean, including the Russian Federation. Armed protection of civilian vessels by employees of private maritime security companies is one of the most effective ways to counter this threat from the international community.
The article deals with the phenomenon of using private marine security companies to ensure the safety of merchant ships in marine areas. The article examines the legal nature of this phenomenon and gives a legal assessment of the activities of private security companies in countering pirate attacks and armed sea robbery. The dynamics of the boundaries of legal regulation of the activities of private marine security companies at the international and national levels, including in the context of its identity with the activities of private military and security companies, is determined. Considerable emphasis is placed on problematic issues of legal regulation of their use of armed force. Particular attention is paid to various guidelines governing the use of force by armed security personnel at sea. Examples of both lawful and illegal use of weapons, as well as non-violent actions to counter the seizure of a ship are considered.
The authors substantiate the conclusion that it is necessary to improve the legal regulation of private marine security activities at the international and national levels, taking into account its specifics, as well as the existing trend of tightening control over the work of private marine security companies.
Keywords: private maritime security companies, armed force, maritime security, international law of the sea, piracy, self-defence, use of lethal force.
For citation: Kholikov I. V., Okocha V. A. The Use of Armed Force by Private Maritime Security Companies: Dynamics of Boundaries and Specifics of Legal Regulation in the Modern World. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 147—158. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.154
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E. V. Cherepanova, S. N. Matulis
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
Abstract. The insufficient degree of unification of statistical reporting forms on the results of anti-corruption measures in federal state bodies, state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local self-government bodies and organizations significantly hinders not only the preparation and provision of relevant information, but also the analysis of anti-corruption measures taken by relevant bodies and structural divisions. The latter should be attributed to the key factors in the introduction and improvement of anti-corruption mechanisms, since this analysis allows, in particular, to implement appropriate personnel work to prevent corrupt behavior in the public civil service, to prevent violations of labor legislation, and to carry out appropriate control measures, if necessary.
The purpose of the work is to conduct a systematic analysis of the array of existing anti-corruption legal acts and measures taken in the field of anti-corruption, for which appropriate reporting is provided. The objectives of the study include, in particular: analysis and comparison of approaches to statistical monitoring of anti-corruption activities, including the elimination of mechanisms for obtaining additional economic benefits in the implementation of government contracts; analysis of issues related to clarifying and unifying information on professional training and retraining of employees in the field of anti-corruption (legal and anti-corruption education activities), interaction with civil society institutions and the media, feedback mechanisms, automation of both filling out and analyzing reporting forms, etc.
The methods used in this study include analysis, synthesis, general scientific methods (system analysis, expert evaluation method), traditional legal methods of cognition (normative analysis, formal legal method).
In addition, given the positive enforcement practices of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russia, the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation the author proposed the automation of the filling process and analysis of reporting forms through the development and implementation of a software system for collecting and recording statistical reports.
Keywords: statistical reporting, anti-corruption, Federal state bodies, state authorities of the Russian Federation subjects, local self-government bodies, organizations.
For citation: Cherepanova E. V., Matulis S. N. Legal Prerequisites for the Unification of Statistical Reporting Forms on the Results of Anti-Corruption Measures. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 159—170. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.155
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V. S. Pavlovskiy
Bryansk branch, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Bryansk 241050, Russian Federation
Abstract. The article notes the continuing importance of harmonizing the sphere of interethnic relations, maintaining interethnic harmony and civil unity for the development of the Russian Federation in the course of democratic transformations, preserving its territorial integrity and ensuring national security. Modern challenges and threats in the field of interethnic relations are a determining factor in expanding the scope of competence of state and local self-government bodies in certain areas of state national policy. At the same time, legislative decisions that establish the relevant competence of public authorities are characterized by insufficient scientific expertise and analytical development, which requires a scientific understanding of the practice of their application, as well as a generalization of the approaches developed by the doctrine. Assessing the current state of constitutional and legal regulation of the competence of state and local self-government bodies in the sphere of interethnic relations, the author defines a range of issues that require priority resolution by public authorities in order to develop the ethnic and cultural diversity of the peoples of the Russian Federation while strengthening the unity of the Russian nation. The intersectoral nature of legal regulation of interethnic relations and the Federal nature of the modern Russian state determine the involvement of public authorities at all territorial levels in the process of implementing state national policy, as well as their orderly interaction. In this regard, a clear and consistent division of their functions and powers is of key importance for improving the effectiveness of state and local self-government bodies in this area.
The author attempts to determine the criteria for forming the competence of public authorities in the sphere of interethnic relations, identify existing gaps in its constitutional and legal regulation, and propose a set of measures aimed at improving the effectiveness of state and local government bodies in fulfilling the strategic goals and objectives set in the sphere of state national policy.
Keywords: federal legislation, regional legislation, competence, state authorities, local authorities, interaction mechanism, interethnic relations, state national policy.
For citation: Pavlovskiy V. S. Constitutional and Legal Regulation of the Competence of Public Authorities in the Sphere of Interethnic Relations: Current State and Ways of Development. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 171—182. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.156
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V. V. Lazarev
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
For citation: Lazarev V. V. Squaring the Circle in Judicial Research of Legal Relations (Review of the Monograph “Legal Relations (Morality of Modern Legal Regulation)” by P. P. Serkov. Moscow, 2020. 688 p.). Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 12, pp. 183—189. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.157