Contents of issue # 10/2020

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

On the Certain Features of Legal Science and the Search for Law

A. V. Kornev

Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Moscow 125993, Russian Federation
Е-mail: kornev_av@rambler.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.116

Abstract. This article is devoted primarily to legal thinking. Of course, the problem itself is not new, but the understanding of law is only a background. The main thesis is that various approaches to law start to form especially quickly “post-perestroika” times, and this approaches — for all their criticality in relation to the normative theory of law — have a normative nature. It is proved that normativity as such “belittles” the law in any of its interpretation. The article analyses the reasons for the existence of various approaches to understanding law: theoretical, practical, personal. In this regard, there is the emphasis on the features of legal science. It is they who, in the degree of viciousness, “provoke” the authors to put forward ideas that do not fit well with reality. Legal science is not nomological, since it explains the essence of phenomena and causes not through the law in the scientific sense of the word. It is the causality of legal science that gives rise to the presence of schools and concepts in it that not only compete, but sometimes try to refute each other. Another significant circumstance is that norms of science is absent in jurisprudence and have an imperative nature. Because of this, the authors have such a wide degree of freedom that any representative of natural science might be envy of this.

Keywords: law, regularity, science, norm, normativity, law, legal thinking, causality.

For citation: Kornev A. V. On the Certain Features of Legal Science and the Search for Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 5—15. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/ jrl.2020.116

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Problemy istorii, metodologii i teorii yuridicheskoy nauki. Ed. by A. V. Kornev. Moscow, 2017.

Skinner K. Chelovek tsifrovoy. Chetvertaya revolyutsiya v istorii chelovechestva, kotoraya zatronet kazhdogo. Moscow, 2019.

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Issues of Legal Institutionalization in the Context of Modern Russian Developing Society

A. I. Abramova

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: theory@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.117

Abstract. In the light of modern processes concerning the development of the post-industrial Russian society and radical changes undergoing in various spheres of state and public life, there is growing scientific interest in the problem of systemic and functional transformation of institutional legal structures, which ensures their “adaptive efficiency”.
The goals and objectives in the study are to systematically analyse the processes of legal institutionalization, develop new standards in understanding this legal category and pose a number of methodological problems of legal institutionalization.
In the process of the research there are formal legal method, methods of legal modelling and intersectoral analysis and the systemic and structural methods.
Legal institutionalization is considered as a necessary condition for maintaining the system of law in an orderly state, its integrational rapprochement with other social institutions and regulators. At present, we can state a certain level of development of the institutionalization issues in law. In modern legal science the concept of a legal institution is revealed and the mechanism of its formation and action is characterized. Different positions and approaches on a number of issues suggest their further clarification. First of all, this concerns the definition of the content of the concept of legal institutionalization. The orientation towards the use of the theological approach in the study of the problems of legal institutionalization seems to be relevant. It is necessary from the theological approach standpoint to develop the doctrine of the integrated theory of the effectiveness of law. Keywords: society, institutions, legal institutionalization, law, legal regulation, form of law, legal norm.

For citation: Abramova A. I. Issues of Legal Institutionalization in the Context of Modern Russian Developing Society. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 16—24. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.117

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■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence in the Human Rights Context

E. V. Talapina

Institute of State and Law, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119019, Russian Federation
E-mail: comparative_law@igpran.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.118

Abstract. The program acts on the artificial intelligence development address the prospects for its using in public management, which is a new scientific and practical problem. The law (especially private law) knows the algorithms, which are based on artificial intelligence as only objects of legal protection. For public law, the task of theoretical understanding of technological renewal is relevant, taking into account the knowing legal values such as fundamental human rights. By means of traditional methods of legal research, the author analyzes the Russian and foreign legal doctrine, judicial practice, examples from law enforcement practice in the field of approaches to regulation and use of technologies in public legal relations. This has highlighted the challenges that the human rights protection system may face.
The algorithm's idea as a set of instructions that can solve a problem and achieve a certain given result well meets the concept of good public administration, since the result of management can be embedded in the algorithm for making a management decision. The greatest efficiency of algorithms is predicted in areas where there is no discretionary power, which is characteristic of the provision of public services. But the management decisions automation carries possible risks.
In public law the scope of algorithms (or rather automatic data processing) is limited to personal data. It is the threat to personal data that is one of the risks in automatic decision-making. The technology of data processing consists in applying certain specified criteria to a particular person. A direct threat to fundamental human rights is contained in the potential discriminatory nature of these criteria. The right to non-discrimination is derived from the principle of equality. But formal legal equality also means the possibility of applying a general rule to a particular case, taking into account individual circumstances, whereas the algorithm impartially provides arithmetic equality. Moreover, artificial intelligence, trained on the basis of real and non-ideal human decisions, can perceive discrimination as a “normal” element of the algorithm. The identified problems need detailed studying and subsequent regulatory solution.

Keywords: algorithm, artificial intelligence, discrimination, personal data, equality, public services.

For citation: Talapina E. V. Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence in the Human Rights Context. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 25—39. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.118

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Digitalization of Society and Prospects for Constitutional Development

L. N. Vasilieva, A. V. Grigoriev

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: liav2013@yandex.ru; alla_grig@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.119

Abstract. The article analyses the legal and philosophical aspects of digitalization as a social and scientifictechnical phenomenon. It researches philosophical viewpoints over the process of building virtual reality, reasons for its emergence, its role and position in social relationships. The scientific-philosophical part of the article analyses the stages of building up the digitalization, the emergence, development and progress of the “virtuality” definition in ancient philosophy times, in medieval philosophy, and in the new era as well. The article describes the modern scientific-technical and social studies, aimed at understanding the essence, position and role of digitalization as a global process. The article also considers the viewpoints of leading scientists in the field of sociology, politics, economics and futurology, oriented towards the impact of information technologies upon the global processes and related comprehension. The article makes certain conclusions over the risks of scientific technical progress, capable of influencing the society.
The article summarizes the views on the role and position of the person in the digital world and on the limits of digital impact upon the society. The article considers the legal approaches to understanding digitalization, as well as it describes the risks, which appear in the digital era. The article reviews the formation of approaches towards the understanding of the digitalization process and the development of digital economy. The new tendencies of the modern reality raise the question about the supplementation and the transformation of constitutional basic principles in the field of protecting human and civil rights. The authors review the human rights, formulated in the Russian Constitution and their sufficiency in the forming “digital world” in the context of protecting human and civil rights in real and digital dimensions. The authors also propose new direction of scientific search for the concept of building new human and personal rights in the context of developing digital reality in the widest sense.

Keywords: digitalization, digital economy, human rights, identity, digital transformation, social sciences, religion, society.

For citation: Vasilieva L. N., Grigoriev A. V. Digitalization of Society and Prospects for Constitutional Development. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 40—58. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.119

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■ ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL LAW

On the Legal Principles of Exploiting Artificial Intelligence in Executing Control and Supervisory Activities by Executive Authorities

A. V. Martynov, M. V. Bundin

Institute of Open Education, National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russian Federation
E-mail: avm@unn.ru; mbundin@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.120

Abstract. Currently artificial intelligence technologies are being actively introduced into public administration, including in the implementation of state control and supervisory powers. The latter raises a legitimate question about the need to form a set of fundamental principles for the use of artificial intelligence technologies in this area.
The main goal of this research is to suggest and ground, based on the analysis of international and national law and existing scientific concepts, the set of fundamental legal principles. They must ensure, on the one hand, the effectiveness of control and supervision activities, and, on the other, guarantee the safety and protection of the rights and legitimate interests of individuals and legal entities. In this regard, the authors consider the main task of the study to be the analysis of international and national experience of legal regulation (strategic and program documents), which introduces artificial intelligence technologies in various spheres of activity, as well as modern scientific concepts about the legal and ethical principles of using artificial intelligence, including those in public administration.
Research methods are general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as formal legal and comparative legal methods.
It is suggested to consider as the main principles of applying artificial intelligence technologies into state control and supervisory activities the following: legality, rationality, security, transparency (openness), human control, stability, modeling and expert evaluation. These principles are proposed to be included in the legal acts, which regulate state control and supervisory activities of the Executive, in particular, in the “basic” federal law on state control (supervision) and municipal control.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, state control and supervision, public administration, digital economy, legal regulation of information technologies.

For citation: Martynov A. V., Bundin M. V. On the Legal Principles of Exploiting Artificial Intelligence in Executing Control and Supervisory Activities by Executive Authorities. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 59—75. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.120

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Ensuring Mandatory Requirements in the Field of Entrepreneurial Activity: Features of Regional Administrative and Tort Law

V. A. Seleznev

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: adm7@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.121

Abstract. Administrative violations and legislation on control and supervision activities reform implementation and leads to necessity to consider the administrative responsibilities for violations of mandatory requirements on a regional level.
The point of the article is to research the legislation experience of the Russian Federation constituent entities within administrative responsibilities for violations of mandatory requirements. For that purpose, the article summarizes the related literature, reaches aspects of the Russian constituent entities' legislation on administrative and detects special aspects of development in case of administrative violations in legislation of the Russian constituent entities' on administrative violations.
The results of analysis highlight and formulate the Russian constituent entities' legislation on administrative violations. The article also concludes that there is the administrative responsibilities perfection in relation to the control-supervising reform activities of legislation on the regional administrative violations in the part of responsibilities of a business on violations of mandatory requirements.
The research methodology includes: system-structural, comparative-legal, logical-theoretical methods of normative acts and the systemic approach. The empirical base of the research is legal acts of the Russian constituent entities on administrative violations.
The practice of forming and applying regional legislation on administrative responsibility is not uniform and stable. Thus, It is necessary to revise the norms of the current legislation on administrative offenses. There are various approaches to the designation of administrative offenses and the determination of their place in the structure of a regulatory legal act. In accordance with the reform of the legislation on administrative offenses and legislation on control and supervisory activities, the design of the composition of administrative offenses should be based on the establishment of general requirements for the composition of an administrative offense, for its objective side, both for the Administrative Offenses Code of the Russian Federation and for the laws on administrative responsibility of the Russian constituent entities ... In order to improve regional laws on administrative offenses, it is necessary to concretize the subjects of regulation of the chapters, taking into account the classification of administrative offenses by specific and particular objects of illegal encroachment. When establishing administrative responsibility by legislative acts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to exclude duplication of provisions of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation and the regional law on administrative offenses, as well as possible contradictions between the regional law on administrative offenses and the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: mandatory requirements, administrative offense, administrative responsibility, controlsupervising activities, business operations, trade, public order.

For citation: Seleznev V. A. Ensuring Mandatory Requirements in the Field of Entrepreneurial Activity: Features of Regional Administrative and Tort Law. Zhurnal rossijskogoprava=Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 76—91. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.121

References

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Reforma KoAP: kakim byt' novomu Kodeksu? Zakon, 2019, no. 7, pp. 17—28.

Rubchenko N. A. Legislative activity of the subjects of the Russian Federation. Cand. diss. Volgograd, 2001. (In Russ.)

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Vasil'eva Ya. V. Improvement of the legislation of the subjects of the Russian Federation on administrative offenses (based on the materials of the North-Western Federal district). Cand. diss. Moscow, 2016. (In Russ.)

■ PROCEDURAL LAW

Defects in the Legislative Regulation of Criminal Proceedings in Juvenile Cases

V. Yu. Stelmakh

Ural Law Institute, Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg 620057, Russian Federation
E-mail: vlstelmah@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.122

Abstract. Juvenile criminal proceedings are specific to the ordinary procedure. This is due to the need to ensure the rights of minors. At the same time, the current legislation is not always systemic, a number of norms contradict to each other and to more general provisions of the criminal procedure law. This situation complicates law enforcement, violates its uniformity and leads to illegal decisions.
The aim of the study is to analyse the procedure for juvenile criminal proceedings in terms of their balanced and structural sustainability. The objectives of the research are to study — from the systemicity point of view — the criminal procedure rules concerning the concept of a minor, the participation of a legal representative, the conduct of investigative actions, the termination of criminal proceedings with the use of coercive measures of educational influence, to formulate proposals for the amendment of legislation to make these rules systematic.
The work uses the method of dialectical materialism by involving the study of all phenomena in connection and development. A systematic method is applied, where the rules of law, which governs proceedings against minors, are considered to be a holistic set of elements in the totality of relations between them.
As a result, elements of unsystem in the criminal procedure of juvenile proceedings are identified: in the definition of a minor; in some aspects of the participation of a legal representative; in the conduct of investigative actions; and in the termination of criminal proceedings with the use of compulsory educational measures. There are justified proposals to to take into account social factors for adjusting the criminal procedure law. A certain differentiation is required in determining the status of a minor. As a general rule, they must be recognized as a person who has not reached the age 18 at the time of the commission of the crime, which corresponds to the social status of a person. Therefore, juvenile proceedings should generally not be simplified. At the same time, the procedural criterion should be applied: some procedures, designed solely to protect the rights of minors, can be carried out only until the accused reaches the age of 18 years (for example, the choice of a preventive measure in the form of care for a minor). The law should also provide (for the discretionary powers of an investigator) the choice of a procedure (for example, the duration of investigations (after a person reaches the full age) can be reduced to take into account the specific characteristics of the accused's identity). The participation of a legal representative is ensured only until the age of 18, and only in exceptional cases thereafter. The defender should be provided regardless of whether the accused reaches the full age or not. The use of video recordings of investigations with the accused should be envisaged. In order to apply educational measures, the investigator must not terminate the criminal case, but initiate an application before the court.

Keywords: criminal proceedings, preliminary investigation, minor, legal representative, investigative actions, termination of criminal proceedings, compulsory educational measures.

For citation: Stelmakh V. Yu. Defects in the Legislative Regulation of Criminal Proceedings in Juvenile Cases. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 92—104. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.122

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Grishina E. P. Display of video and camera recording of juvenile victim or witness testimony in criminal proceedings (international standards, legal position of the european court of human rights and Russian legislation). Mirovoy sud'ya, 2017, no. 9, pp. 24—29. (In Russ.)

Gus'kova A. P., Emel'yanov V. A., Yurchenko L. V. Ugolovno-protsessual'nye voprosy organizatsii yuvenal'nogo sudoproizvodstva v sovremennoy Rossii. Orenburg, 2009. 214 p.

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Lamintseva S. A. Protsessual'nye garantii realizatsii prav nesovershennoletnikh v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve. Sud'ya, 2017, no. 4, pp. 42—47.

Makarenko I. A. Guarantees of rights and lawful interests of a juvenile accused in the process of criminal investigation. Lex russica, 2015, no. 8, pp. 58—69. (In Russ.)

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The Importance of the Claim’s Individualization for Appeal

E. A. Fokin

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: evgeniy.hse@outlook.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.123

Abstract. The subject of this article is the procedural issues that arose in the case of the Moscow Commercial Court No. A40-235720/2018. This dispute actualized several discussions of legal science, which were previously considered as having no intersection points: individualization of the claim, authority of the appellate court and cooperation between the court and the parties. The doctrine and practice have not yet developed a consensus on one of the most long-running issues of procedural law: what if the plaintiff proved a violation of his right, but was mistaken in choosing a method of defense? In the commented case this problem arose in a new form. So, the key question was the actions of the appellate court, if during the verification of the judicial act the erroneousness of the method chosen by the plaintiff to protect the violated right (and, accordingly, the satisfaction of the claim with this method of protection) was established. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation took a rather radical position regarding the absolute impossibility of canceling a judicial act on the grounds of the erroneous choice of a method of protecting a violated right. But this position, in turn, entailed new problems associated with the general ambiguity of the algorithm of practical actions of appeal in the situation under consideration.
This article is an attempt to evaluate the approach of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation both from the point of view of the theory of procedural law, and from the point of view of already existing approaches of judicial practice.

Keywords: appeal, individualization of a claim, powers of appeal, choice of a method of protecting a violated right.

For citation: Fokin E. A. The Importance of the Claim’s Individualization for Appeal. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 105—117. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.123

References

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Commentary on the Arbitration Procedural Code of the Russian Federation (itemized). Ed. by V. V. Yarkov. 4th ed. Moscow, 2020. 1071 p. (In Russ.)

Egorova M. A. On some issues of individualization of the claim. Vestnik Samarskoy gumanitarnoy akademii. Seriya “Pravo”, 2011, no. 2. (In Russ.)

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Kashkarova I. N. Individualization of a claim in civil proceedings. Cand. diss. St. Petersburg, 2015. (In Russ.)

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■ LAND LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Legal Problems of Development and Use of Underground Space in Terms of Spatial Development of Urban Agglomerations

M. V. Ponomarev

M. V. Ponomareva, b
a
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
bMoscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, Moscow 105064, Russian Federation
E-mail: ecology1@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.124

Abstract. Currently, the spatial development of urban agglomerations, carried out to improve the comfort of the urban environment and achieve the goals of the Strategy of spatial development of the Russian Federation until 2025, involves the creation of new and improving the existing energy, utility, and transport infrastructure of the city. Due to these factors, the development and use of underground space, the construction of various types of underground structures, especially in cities and large urban agglomerations, is particularly relevant.
The purpose of this article is a scientific study of the role of development and use of underground space in the spatial development of urban agglomerations. In order to achieve this goal, this article addresses the problems of identifying and studying the features of legal regulation of the development of underground space in cities for various purposes, underground construction, as a type of economic activity aimed at creating underground structures. The article examines the role of underground space in terms of spatial development of cities and the formation of urban agglomerations is established by the concepts of "underground space", "development of underground space", "underground structure", examines the characteristics of the legal regime of underground facilities as real estate and capital construction.
In the course of the research, a number of special legal methods of cognition were used, in particular, formal legal, comparative legal and legal forecasting methods. Using the formal legal method, the author studies the features of constructing legal norms that fix the features of the legal regime of underground structures, using the comparative legal method, the author studies relevant foreign experience in the development of underground space in large urban agglomerations, and using the method of legal forecasting, the author highlights possible trends in the development of legislation in the field of development and use of underground space in cities, it also suggests possible ways to improve the legal regulation of relations in this area.
As a result of the research, the author comes to conclusions about the need to develop legislation regulating relations in the field of development and development of underground space in cities, the author offers scientifically based directions for improving the legal regime of underground structures and legal regulation of relations for their creation from the standpoint of legislation on subsoil and legislation on urban development, as well as the order of development and use of underground space for various purposes in the implementation of spatial development of megacities and urban agglomerations.

Keywords: underground space, structures, underground structures, subsoil, subsurface, urban planning, construction, capital construction, development, spatial development, agglomerations, urban agglomerations.

For citation: Ponomarev M. V. Legal Problems of Development and Use of Underground Space in Terms of Spatial Development of Urban Agglomerations. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 118—135. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.124

References

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Lagutkin A. V., Grudtsyna L. Yu. O georesursakh nedr i priznanii prava sobstvennosti na ob"ekty podzemnogo stroitel'stva v Rossii: vvedenie v problemu. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 93—96.

Makishin V. N. Tselesoobraznost' osvoeniya podzemnykh prostranstv megapolisov. Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskiy zhurnal), 2013, no. 7, pp. 25—32.

Makishin V. N., Fatkulin A. A. Usloviya formirovaniya i perspektivy razvitiya podzemnogo prostranstva gorodov. Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskiy zhurnal), 2009, no. 4, pp. 530—534.

Mel'gunov V. D. O ponyatii, soderzhanii i pravovoy prirode prava pol'zovaniya nedrami. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2008, no. 9, pp. 43—50.

Mel'gunov V. D. Teoreticheskie osnovy gornogo prava Rossii. Moscow, 2016. 328 p.

Nigmatullina Eh. F. Application of norms of natural resources and city-planning legislation in underground construction in the cities. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2011, no. 2, pp. 21—23. (In Russ.)

Perchik A. I. Gornoe pravo. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2003. 525 p.

Pevzner M. E. Gornoe pravo. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2006. 375 p.

Pravovoe regulirovanie sbalansirovannogo razvitiya territoriy: sbornik materialov mezhdunarodnykh nauchno-prakticheskikh konferentsiy “Ekologicheskaya politika: vektory sbalansirovannogo razvitiya” (MIIGAiK, 14 December 2017) i “Pravovoe obespechenie kompleksnogo razvitiya territoriy” (MIIGAiK, IZiSP, 15 March 2018). Ed. by S. A. Bogolyubov, N. R. Kamynina, N. V. Kichigin, M. V. Ponomarev. Moscow, 2018. 324 p.

Sidorov I. N. Pravo pol'zovaniya nedrami v Rossii: vozniknovenie i perekhod: nauchnoe izdanie. Moscow, 2016. 128 p.

Telichenko V. I., Zertsalov M. G., Konyukhov D. S. Sostoyanie i perspektivy osvoeniya podzemnogo prostranstva g. Moskvy. Vestnik MGSU, 2010, no. 4, pp. 24—36.

Zhernakov D. V. On the legal regime of underground facilities. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2014, no. 4, pp. 114—120. (In Russ.)

■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW

Current Problems of State Monopoly Regulation of the Foreign Economic Activity

N. G. Doronina, N. G. Semilyutina

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: gis.doronina@yandex.ru; foreign3@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.125

Abstract. Legal regulation of foreign economic activity in Russia and abroad during economic reforms is based on using of the institute of state monopoly of foreign trade. The changes in international legal regulation that have taken place under the influence of the economic relations' globalization (the creation of the World Trade Organization) have shown how important this legal institution plays in the context of international trade liberalization. The novelties of Russian legislation in this area of relations also show this. They relate to civil contracts as a legal form of implementation of social functions of the state.
The structure of the article includes an analysis of the current practice of using the institute of state monopoly of foreign economic activity. The article analyzes the legal forms of organization of foreign economic activity in which the state has historically implemented its functions to protect national interests, modern methods of international turnover in foreign legislation, as well as the main tools for regulating relations in this field of activity — international agreements and civil law agreements.

Keywords: foreign trade, foreign economic relations, state monopole, competition law, investment protection treaties.

For citation: Doronina N. G., Semilyutina N. G. Current Problems of State Monopoly Regulation of the Foreign Economic Activity. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 136—153. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.125

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Wang Xigen, Tang Yong. The Right to Equal Development and its Practice Models in China. Frontiers of Law in China, 2015, vol. 10, no. 4.

On the Correlation between State Territorial Integrity and Equal Rights and Self-Determination of Peoples

R. M. Karaev

Institute of Oriental Studies, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1073, Azerbaijan
E-mail: raufgara@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.126

Abstract. The problem of correlation between the principles of territorial integrity and self-determination of peoples is not only a theoretical problem of international law, but also very relevant for the practical activities of states and international organizations. This is due to the recent trend of increasing importance of territorial problems as a source of conflict, which often poses a threat to global peace and international security in general, as well as in certain regions of the world. Recently, a number of events have taken place in various parts of the world that have intensified discussions in the doctrine of international law about the relationship and interaction of these principles. In Western Europe, Spain is the attempt of the independence of Catalonia, in the UK there is the possibility of holding a new referendum on Scottish independence and the uncertainty in this question because of Brexit), in Southern Europe there is unsettled problems in Northern Cyprus and Kosovo, in the Middle East there is the attempt to create an independent Kurdish state (Syria, Iraq), as well as the fight against DAISH, in Africa there is an attempt to create a Tuareg state, etc. Therefore, research and further development of this issue is of great scientific importance.
The article examines the main theoretical concepts of the correlation between the principles of territorial integrity and self-determination of peoples on the basis of various methods of scientific knowledge.
Conclusion: the normative content of the principles of territorial integrity and self-determination of peoples does not contradict each other. They contain various guidelines and standards. The provision that the content of the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples does not provide for any prescriptions aimed at authorizing or encouraging actions leading to violations of the territorial integrity of independent States determines the main parameter of its relationship with the principle of territorial integrity of States.

Keywords: international law, territorial integrity, self-determination, people, principles, correlation.

For citation: Karaev R. M. On the Correlation between State Territorial Integrity and Equal Rights and Self-Determination of Peoples. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 154—167. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.126

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■ SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF COUNTERING CORRUPTION

The Register of Persons Dismissed from Government and Municipal Due to Loss of Trust: Issues of Efficiency

M. V. Presnyakov, S. E. Channov

M. V. Presnyakova, S. E. Channova,b
aPovolzhsky Institute of Management named after P. A. Stolypin, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Saratov 410031, Russian Federation
bSaratov State University, Saratov 410012, Russian Federation
E-mail: presnykov1972@yandex.ru; sergeychannov@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.127

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of maintaining and using the register of persons dismissed due to loss of trust, which was provided for in the framework of the reform of the anti-corruption legislation in 2017. Despite the fact that this register is currently being actively developed, the prospects for its use in law enforcement practice remain very unclear. In particular, the law does not clearly define the legal consequences of including persons who have committed corruption offenses in this register.
The purpose of this work is to analyze the procedure for maintaining and using the register of persons dismissed due to loss of trust; to develop specific proposals for improving the effectiveness of this disciplinary measure in order to counter corruption.
To achieve these goals, the authors use both the general scientific dialectical method, which makes it possible to understand the duality of understanding the legal categories under consideration, and the methods of formal logic, the comparative method, the system-structural method, etc.
As a result of the study, the authors conclude that the “informing” action of the specified registry is clearly not enough to ensure its preventive function. In this regard, they make a number of proposals to improve the current legislation both in terms of maintaining the register of persons dismissed due to loss of trust, and in relation to the specific legal consequences of including a person in such a register. In particular, it is proved that the effectiveness of using the register of persons dismissed due to loss of confidence for committing a corruption offense will significantly increase if entering into such a register is accompanied by the deprivation of the right to hold positions of state and municipal service (as well as some others) for a certain period. The fundamental constitutional principles of freedom of work and equal access to public and municipal services must be taken into account.

Keywords: anti-corruption, loss of trust, register of persons dismissed due to loss of trust, disciplinary responsibility, effectiveness of responsibility, deprivation of the right to fill positions of state and municipal service.

For citation: Presnyakov M. V., Channov S. E. The Register of Persons Dismissed from Government and Municipal Due to Loss of Trust: Issues of Efficiency. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 168—183. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.127

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Channov S. E. Disciplinary and Administrative Liability of Federal and Municipal Employees: Issues of Efficiency. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 2, pp. 59—69. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_2_6 (In Russ.)

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■ LEGAL LIFE. CHRONICLE

Systematization of Legislation in the Focus of Historical and Legal Science (to the 470th Anniversary of the 1550 Law Code)  Pdf 16

M. V. Zaloilo, D. A. Abdieva

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: theory@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.128

Abstract. The article reviews the Second all-Russian scientific conference "Systematization of legislation in the focus of historical and legal science" held on May 13, 2020 at the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, which was devoted to the 470th anniversary of the 1550 Law Code as one of the largest monuments of Russian legislation that had a significant impact on the regulation of public relations during the formation of the centralized Russian state. The conference brought together specialists in the history and theory of law and state, historians, cultural scientists, and other representatives of humanitarian thought and scientific schools in Russia and abroad. The conference discussed the impact of the 1550 Law Code on the development of Russian legislation, systematization of industry legislation in historical retrospect, and modern theories and technologies for systematization of normative legal acts.

Keywords: 1550 Law Code, systematization of legislation, digitalization of law.

For citation: Zaloilo M.V., Abdieva D.A. Systematization of Legislation in the Focus of Historical and Legal Science (to the 470th Anniversary of the 1550 Law Code ). Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 10, pp. 184—195. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.128

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

To the Anniversary of V. V. Lazarev  Pdf 16

Contents of issues:

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2016
2015
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2012
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