Contents of issue # 1/2019


Contract as a General Legal Value (on the Genesis of Legal Epistemology)  Pdf 16


judge of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation
1, Senatskaya sq., St. Petersburg, Russia, 190000

A contract as a general legal value is considered in the article from the point of view of legal epistemology. The contract is a legal aspect of economic relations of an exchange, this concept belongs to number of so-called constitutive. The legal rule on the contract is, from the point of view of the primary conceptual concepts of law, a kind of basic rule. Its appearance is connected with the genealogy of the basic deontological concepts of duty and responsibility. The contract as a social and scientific phenomenon is studied in the article in statu nascendi (in its infancy). The author critically assesses one of the ideas of vulgar materialism about the absolute determinism of contracts as a legal form of the so-called material (economic basis), proving that the foundations of contract law derived from the metaphysics of Aristotle, ethical concepts of Thomas Aquinas and almost unchanged, especially bearing in mind the strong-willed theory, were created by representatives of the Spanish and Northern schools of natural law. 
To analyze the current economic system in Russia it is important to distinguish between two models of economic system: based on freedom of contract and based on the idea of statuses, when the market economy is subordinated to various non-economic institutions. Thus, the fundamental importance of the principle of freedom of contract for a truly market economy is justified.

Keywords: contract, constitutional norms, principle of freedom of contract.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_1



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Economic and Legal Value of the Contract in Court Proceedings  Pdf 16


secretary of the Plenum of Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, judge of the highest qualification class of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, chairman of the Council of Judges of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor
15, Povarskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 121260

The article is devoted to the study of legal and economic-legal aspects of the distribution of contractual structures in the procedural and legal sphere. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the trends of rationalization and pragmatization of law, strengthening the position of the school of economic analysis of law, as well as the initiatives of the Supreme court of the Russian Federation (in particular, proposals to expand conciliation procedures and the rejection of the institution of contractual jurisdiction). 
The purpose of this study is to identify the scope of application of the Institute of contract in the judicial process on the basis of a reasonable balance of public and private interests. The objectives of the study are to analyze the historical and comparative legal context of the expansion of contractual structures, evaluation of proposals of the highest court in relation to the topic under consideration. 
The study used systemic, historical and legal, comparative legal, formal legal methods. 
According to the results of the study, attention is drawn to the fact that the value of the contract in the judicial process is determined by reducing the costs of the parties to resolve the conflict and the law enforcement costs of the state. At the same time, it is stated that at present there are no sufficient economic incentives for the development of the Treaty in the procedural and legal sphere, since conciliation procedures are much more expensive than the resolution of the dispute by the court. In this regard, a positive effect is expected from the proposals of the Supreme Court on the development of the institution of judicial reconciliation and the rejection of the institution of contractual jurisdiction that has lost any real meaning. Attention is drawn to the positive value of the contract for the distribution of legal costs and the development of judicial representation. In addition, the article presents a critical analysis of the institution of pre-trial agreement on cooperation in criminal proceedings, based on the Anglo-American model of legal proceedings and requiring additional understanding in relation to the Russian legal order relating to the continental legal system.

Keywords: contract, settlement agreement, mediation, the size of the state fee, court costs, contractual jurisdiction, pre-trial agreement.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_2



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Christian Axiology and Ontology of Contract Law  Pdf 16


professor at the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor
49, Leningradsky ave., Moscow, Russia, 125993

Based on the analysis of religious sources of Judaism and Christianity, the works of Aquinas and other theologians and philosophers of the middle Ages, thinkers of modern times, theories of modern axiology of law, the author raises the question of axiological assessment of not only the content of the contract, but also its ontological role in the origin and further development of the state, civil society and the individual. According to the author the further development of the Russian Federation needs to determine as soon as possible the value justification of various state-legal institutions and, above all, the contract as an expression of consent between citizens (public-law social contract) and the freedom of will of the parties in the legally binding nature of contractual obligations in the field of civil law relations.
The author sets a goal: based on the analysis of the old and New Testament, their interpretation by theologians and philosophers of law, to prove the need to determine the value approaches to the foundation and purpose of the contract. The article shows various scientific and religious points of view on the axiology and ontology of contract law. The author believes that the “crumbling” world of today's legal reality needs a new concept of contract law from the standpoint of the theory and philosophy of law both at the level of the Russian system of law and the system of legislation, and in the field of international law. 
The methodology of this study is to use hermeneutics, methods of interpretation of legal texts and formal logical tools in the systematic analysis of the works of representatives of different historical eras.
The conclusion is made about the importance of axiology in the evaluation of one of the most important institutions of public and private law – the contract in determining its content and purpose.

Keywords: contract, contract law, Judaism, Christianity, old Testament, New Testament, axiology of law, ontology.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_3



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On the Heuristic Perspective of Legal Axiology in the Process of Rethinking the Concept of “Legal Contract”  Pdf 16


associate professor of the Department of theory and history of state and law of the Moscow City Pedagogical University, candidate of legal sciences, associate professor
16, Novokuznetskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 119017

In conceptual terms, the possibilities of axiological methodology, which is not one of the basic methodologies common to the general legal theory, are being updated, however, it is at the forefront of the analysis, since it satisfies the requirement of an integral analysis of such a legal phenomenon as a legal contract.
The purpose of the study is to present the fundamental resources of legal axiology, i.e. everything that can be used in a targeted manner in the process of rational mastering using the general theory of the state and the law phenomenon of an agreement with normative content. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are solved: to identify the main issues of the contract in the general legal theory field; to identify problems in the social and legal practices field that determine the need for scientific development of the contract’s phenomenon with regulatory content; to present the characteristics of the legal axiology’s basic properties as a section of the philosophy and philosophy of law, a complex in its nature branch of modern science; to show a system of factors that are able to give impetus to the development of theoretical and legal ideas about the contract from the standpoint of self-value and self-sufficiency of the contractual law-making subject, which is important to overcome legal positivism’s extremes, detracting from the legal reality devaluation; to formulate the main findings of the study.
The methodological basis is due, firstly, to the main methodological approaches (on the complex ontology of the law itself, its polymodality; on its inclusion in the ontological indicators of the human (citizen) right; on the value (axiological) approach to law, on the basis of the substantive and value assessment of law in general, and its individual segments), which are represented holistically; secondly, scientific analysis methods of the theoretical level adequate to these approaches (abstraction, construction, communication, etc.).
Main results: legal axiology allows reformatting traditional issues in relation to public law contract; it opens up certain prospects for a contextual analysis of a contract in the field of public law, and the results obtained can be a means of systematizing and harmonizing theoretical and legal knowledge of a contract.

Keywords: legal contract, form of law, public law, methodology, philosophy of law, legal axiology, legal values, subject of contract law-making, principles of law, principles of public law.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_4



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A Сontract: New Facets of Regulation and Law Understanding Issues  Pdf 16


leading research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

The current reform of Russian civil legislation suggests a meaningful modernization of the contractual obligations’ composition in the second part of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. The immediate benchmarks for legislative development are law enforcement practice, positive experience in the regulation of developed European legal orders, and developments in Russian and foreign legal doctrine of contract law. It is necessary to develop program directions for the development of the Civil Code provisions of the Russian Federation on contractual obligations. Questions about the criteria for building a system of contracts in the Civil Code and federal laws, adopted in accordance with it, require further development. The need to determine the relationship of linguistically similar, but ontologically and epistemologically distinguishable concepts of contract and agreement, both in interdisciplinary (civil, labor, family law) and inter-branch (civil, administrative) aspects, therefore, are practical and of theoretical significance. It acquires the question of the possibility and the context of understanding the contract as an inter-sectoral value. The need to maximize a comprehensive and fully-fledged coverage of these issues formulates an urgent task for legal science and practice.

Keywords: agreement, civil contract, administrative contract, contract as legal value.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_5



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Custom in Civil Law  Pdf 16


N. V. KOZLOVA, professor at the Department of civil law of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, doctor of legal sciences
1, Leninskie gory, Moscow, Russia, 119991

S. Yu. FILIPPOVA, professor at the Department of business law of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, candidate of legal sciences
1, Leninskie gory, Moscow, Russia, 119991

The authors discuss reasons for the rare use of legal custom by Russian courts as a source of civil law. To solve this issue, the authors refer to the history of the custom’s formation. Being one of the oldest sources of domestic Russian law, the legal custom received legal consolidation in the Article 5 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation in 2012, replacing the custom of business turnover. The article highlights and analyzes signs of legal custom based on its legal definition, namely: 1) the rule of conduct; 2) the rule that developed; 3) the rule widely used in any field of activity; 4) the rule not provided for by law. According to the authors, the custom is also characterized by signs: morality, rationality, conservatism, importance. The authors show how these signs of custom manifest themselves in the modern Russian legal system. It is emphasized that legal custom corresponds to the dominant notions of morality and justice in society. The concepts of general binding and formal certainty of custom are revealed. It is noted that the custom is designed for repeated use, applies to all homogeneous situations arising in the period of its action. The addressee of the custom is an indefinite circle of persons. Custom is formed and applied in certain areas of human activity: entrepreneurial, banking, stock exchange, and others. The customs that have developed in a certain field of activity may not operate outside the scope of this area. The article describes the methods of collecting and fixing the custom. Official and unofficial fixation of customs is different. The significance of the official fixation of customs, held by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation and the courts, aimed at clarifying the content of the custom, is shown. Using the example of pre-revolutionary and modern collections of customs, the use of an informal collection and systematization of customs for studying the history of Russian civil law is demonstrated. The article determines the place of custom among the regulators of civil relations. A conflict has been revealed in the solution of the issue in the relationship between the custom and dispositive norms of legislation. Ways of further research on customary civil law are outlined.

Keywords: sources of civil law, custom, custom of business turnover, civil legislation, dispositive norms, imperative norms, law.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_6



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Trends in Contractual Relationships in Russian Criminal Procedural Law  Pdf 16


chief research fellow of the Department of criminal, criminal procedure law; judicial system of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor, honored scientist of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

Contractual principles actively come into criminal procedural relations; have a significant impact on the will of the participants in the proceedings. So, the studies related to the development of conciliation procedures, private and private-public prosecutions, pre-trial agreement on cooperation are of particular relevance.
The purpose of this study is to identify the special role of the agreement in the sphere of Russian criminal proceedings. The objectives of the study are: a) to determine the features of the criminal procedure legislation regulating certain rules that go beyond the scope of publicity and form the private beginning of the Russian criminal proceedings; b) to show the positions of scientists — procedural experts on the convergence of private and public law in the field of criminal procedure; c) to analyze the results of the judicial and investigative practice of the application of criminal procedural legislation on contractual legal means; d) to substantiate recommendations for the further development of contractual principles in the criminal proceedings of Russia.
The methodological basis of the research is the dialectical method of cognition, general scientific methods of abstraction, analysis and synthesis, as well as special legal methods: historical-legal, comparative-legal, logical-legal, etc.
The author comes to the conclusion that the entering of private law elements into the public sphere should have its limits enshrined at the level of criminal procedure legislation. These elements have to determine the legal consequences of the will of a particular person during the preliminary investigation and trial of a criminal case. The use of contractual legal means in the regulation of criminal procedural relations leads to an increase in the efficiency of criminal proceedings and helps to resolve criminal legal conflicts between the subjects of the process.

Keywords: agreement, convergence of private and public law, criminal proceedings, participants in the process, conciliation procedures, private and private-public prosecution, consent of the accused with the prosecution, pre-trial agreement on cooperation.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_7



Abshilava G. V. Ob usilenii roli dogovornykh nachal v rossiyskom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve. Okhrana prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v sfere ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (3—4 iyunya 2016 g., MAEP, Soyuz kriminalistov i kriminologov). Moscow, 2016.

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Review of the XIII Annual Scientific Readings “Contract as a General Legal Value” Devoted to the Memory of Professor S. N. Bratus  Pdf 16


O. A. BELYAEVA, leading research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences

M. O. DOLOVA, senior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences

A. A. AYUROVA, junior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

E. V. YAMASHEVA, research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

This article provides an overview of the XIII Annual Scientific Readings “Contract as a General Legal Value” Devoted to the Memory of Professor S. N. Bratus (Moscow, 24 October 2018).

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Human Dignity: Dialogue of Theory, Constitutional Norms, International Regulators and Social Reality  Pdf 16


head of the Department of theory and history of state and law, constitutional law of the Novosibirsk National Research State University, doctor of legal sciences, professor
1, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, Russia,
630090 E-mail:

The article is considering the etymology of human dignity in modern jurisprudence, the problems of identifying the human dignity in constitutional and international discourse, some legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the human dignity, the importance of the balancing principle of protecting the human dignity in constitutional justice, the legal polymorphism of human dignity as legal category.
The aim is to study the boundaries and significance of the dialogue of the doctrine, constitutional norms, international legal acts and social reality in the development of ideas about human dignity, to reveal the national and international conditions for the rise of human dignity in modern jurisprudence, to consider the influence of legal polymorphism on the consolidation of the human dignity in the branches of Russian law, to correlate the constitutional concept of human dignity with the Russian experience of constitutional regulation of human dignity’s protection, and the practice of constitutional justice.
The author used general and specific scientific methods, including formally legal, comparative, concrete historical methods of analysis, methods of constitutional hermeneutics and legal engineering, and a discursive approach that allows determining the meta-legal nature and the polysemic significance of human dignity in contemporary Russian and international jurisprudence.
Conclusions: human dignity is existential rather than moral value, has a divergent nature of applicability in various spheres of legal regulation (domestic and international), there is a public-law and private-law polymorphism of human dignity in Russian law, discusses the possibility of recognizing the principle of respect for and protection of human dignity as a principle of international law, in particular, but interrelated with other principles.
In the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation it is confirmed that: 1) the human dignity is the basis of all human rights and freedoms and a necessary condition for their existence and observance; 2) the Russian state has a legal obligation to protect the dignity of a person and citizen and their rights in all areas where they are realized.

Keywords: human dignity, legal polymorphism, existential value, the principle of international law, judicial constitutionalization, the constitutional principle, the right to dignity.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_8




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The People and the State: On the Doctrinal Interpretation of the Constitutional Model  Pdf 16


professor аt the Stavropol State Agrarian University, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, doctor of legal sciences, professor, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation
12, Zootekhnicheskiy lane, Stavropol, Russia, 355017

Two different concepts are denoted by the term “the people” in the theory of constitutional law: an empirical concept (the concrete people as a complex of citizens) and a theoretical concept (the abstract people as a juridical person, as a legal creature). Under constitutional considering the people is appeared as unity of two opposites: the abstract people as something that must be and the concrete people as real being; the contradiction between them as the contradiction between something that must be and real being. This basic contradiction is taken specific expression in different public relations in which some specific contradictions are emerged as an exhibition of the total contradiction between the abstract and concrete people (between something that must be and real being), and they cause some particular problems, which by turn are decomposed on problem issues.
The aim of the research is to develop theoretical provisions that can be used as a basis for scientific knowledge of such problematic issues and search for possible ways to solve them. This aim is implementing by means of realization of following tasks: theoretical interpretation of the concept of “the people” when using it in various branches of scientific knowledge; a comparative analysis of the relationship between the people and the state in the history of development of views on the nature of the state; philosophical interpretation of the constitutional model of the Russian statehood.
The methodological basis of this scientific work was dialectical, systemic, comparative-legal, normative and other methods of cognition.
The author based on the doctrinal interpretation of the constitutional model proposed a conceptual approach that views the people as a structural unit of the Russian statehood as the initial gnoseological cell of its scientific cognition, and the state itself as the state-organized people, as the “collective citizen”. Such understanding of the concept “the people” is presented as perspective for comprehension of existing knowledge and conducting concrete researches in constitutional law.

Keywords: the people, the abstract people, the concrete people, state, source of power, something that must be, real being, constitutional and legal conceptual space.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_9



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Constitutional and Legislation of the Republic of Crimea (2014—2018): from Problems of Integration to Sustainable Development  Pdf 16


head of the Secretariat of the State Council Committee of the Republic of Crimea, senior lecturer at the Department of state and law disciplines of the Crimean Branch of the Russian State University of Justice
19, K. Marks st., Simferopol, Russia, 295000

Constitutional changes in Crimea in the post-Soviet period are unique. During the collapse of the USSR and gaining independence by Union republics the first referendum on state and legal status of the Crimea on 20 January 1991 was held, the results of which resonated events in 2014 and the development of political and legal systems subsequent years.
The author analyzes the stages of the constitutional formation of the legislative base of the Republic of Crimea in 2014—2018. It is noted that the adoption of the Constitution and the formation of the legislative base of the Republic of Crimea in 2014—2015 had a transformational character (i.e. it was aimed at significant changes in the existing social relations) in contrast to the subsequent codification cycle (2016—2018). Attention is focused on the fact that the main leitmotif of the constitutional (transformational) phase of the formation of the legislation of the Crimea in 2014—2015 was a need to regulate the transition (or «reconfigure») of the existing social relations (i.e. those relations that existed before Crimea became part of the Russian Federation), to create as soon as possible a legislative basis for the emergence of new legal relations, their change or termination, which would be in harmony with the legal system of the Russian Federation, to ensure the succession of economic and social rights.
The author comes to the conclusion that in the modern realities of the increasing trends of amendments to the current legislation its harmonization stipulates the need to introduce automation mechanisms of certain legal functions, including those related to the application of the institute of legal monitoring.

Keywords: Republic of Crimea, integration, legal space, lawmaking, harmonization of legislation, legal monitoring, legal paradigm.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_10



Demidov G. Kommentariy k Konstitutsii Avtonomnoy Respubliki Krym, prinyatoy na vtoroy sessii Verkhovnoy Rady Avtonomnoy Respubliki Krym 21 oktyabrya 1998 goda. Kiev, 2010.

Normotvorcheskiy protsess v subektakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii (na primere Respubliki Krym i goroda federalnogo znacheniya Sevastopolya). Eds. S. A. Trofimov, I. V. Bondarchuk. Simferopol, 2018.

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The Concept of “Single Property Unit”: On the Feasibility and Possibility of Its Implementation in the Russian Legislation  Pdf 16


first deputy Chairman of the Moscow regional Duma
72, Prospekt Mira, Moscow, Russia, 129063

The article analyzes the relevant issues of realization of the single property unit concept in the domestic legislation, according to which the land plots and the property unit located on them are a single whole.
The author comes to the conclusion that the legislator should refrain from fragmented implementation in the Russian law of the individual elements of the single property unit theory and focus on mechanism of transition to the classical model of regulation of property turnover, including the issue of identification of the object for inclusion in civil turnover of apartments and rooms, located in apartment buildings, etc. Such problems are compounded by the lack of proper rights of the owners of the structures to the relevant land plots, and many structures in principle cannot be involved in civil circulation simultaneously with the land plots due to the exclusion of the latter from circulation or limitation of their turnover. In order to introduce the theory of a single real estate object into the Russian legislation, it is necessary to develop a separate concept, in which all the features of the existing mechanism of involvement in the civil turnover of single property units based on their differentiation should be worked out comprehensively.

Keywords: property, single property unit, single property complex, land plot, component part of land plot, building, construction, residential premises.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_11



Kalinichenko K. S. Zdaniya i sooruzheniya kak sostavnye chasti zemelnogo uchastka. Sravnitelnyy analiz po rossiyskomu i germanskomu pravu. Zakon, 2014, no. 12.

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Digital Economy and Information Support in Hunting: Institutional and Legal Aspects  Pdf 16


postgraduate student at the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

Development of law in terms of digital economy is one of the topical and most disputable issues nowadays. Among the most important areas of global digitalization is the formation of information databases in a wide range of areas of activity, serving as a source of reliable and complete information necessary for the implementation of the functions and tasks of the state, to meet the information needs of business and public inquiries.
In hunting, the key source of information on hunting grounds, hunting resources (including their use and conservation), hunters, as well as legal entities and individual entrepreneurs engaged in activities in the field of hunting is the state hunting register, which is maintained at the regional level. In the light of the existing strategic objectives for the development of the digital economy, this register is another object of digital modernization, which is impossible without a thorough study of its current state, identification of related legal and organizational problems and barriers.
In this regard, in the development of the above-mentioned article, the readers are offered an analysis of the existing legal mechanisms and the quality of information support in the field of hunting, based on the results of our legal monitoring in 35 subjects of the Russian Federation. Shortcomings of legal regulation and the risks caused by them are revealed. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the state hunting register as a public source of relevant information and its compliance with the ideas of the digital economy.

Keywords: information society, information databases, digital economy, consultations the Belarusian delegation registry, hunting management, law enforcement, and regional law.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_1_12



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