Contents of issue # 11/2020

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Formula of Legal Impact  Pdf 16

Yu. A. Tikhomirov

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: office2@izak.ru

Abstract. In modern society, there are large-scale and deep processes that are contradictory and, to a certain extent, subject to a weak scientific knowledge. There are many concepts and theories that have been around for centuries up to the present time. Moreover, these theories can be actually legal and derived from General theories and concepts. However, they clearly exaggerate the analysis of legal structures and underestimate the mechanism of the transformative impact of law on processes in society.
The article presents the interpretation of law as a mechanism for reflection and transformation of phenomena and processes. The development of the theory and concepts that influenced real processes is considered. Their advantages and weaknesses are noted. This makes it possible to analyze their impact on economic, social, political, technical and environmental development. There is some inconsistency between the goals, indicators achieved and actions taken, which are clearly dominated by pragmatic solutions.
A system of effective legal, organizational and other means has been developed to fill this gap and show correlations between these means, actual results and the level of development in different spheres of society and the state. A new scientific and legal development strategy — which is proposed — allows the combination of theoretical approaches and useful scientific and practical recommendations.

Keywords: law, legal regulators, legal force of acts, efficiency assessment, standard unit, public authorities, international legal norms.

For citation: Tikhomirov Yu. A. Formula of Legal Impact. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 5—13. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.129

References

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Churakov V. D. Big Data i yurisprudentsiya: na odnom li my puti? Law and Information: The Questions of Theory and Practice: Collection of works of international scientific and practical conference. Iss. 7. St. Petersburg, 2018. Pp. 136—143. (In Russ.)

Didikin A. B., Chernenko A. K., Kurilov E. P. Formirovanie pravovogo gosudarstva: politikopravovye aspekty. Novosibirsk, 2009. 150 p.

Dvinskikh D. Yu., Talapina E. V. Risks of Data Turnover Development in Public Administration. Voprosy gosudarstvennogo i munitsipal'nogo upravleniya, 2019, no. 3, pp. 7—30 (In Russ.)

Human rights transformations in the modern world. Ed. by A. N. Savenkov. Moscow, 2018. 255 p. (In Russ.)

Kazantsev N. M. Neg-economy Cases Created by Legislation. Moscow, 2019. 280 p. (In Russ.)

Legal Concept of Robotization. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, S. B. Nanba. Moscow, 2019. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Legal Space and a Person. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, E. V. Pulyaeva, N. I. Khludeneva. Moscow, 2012. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Mil'ner B. Z. Upravlenie znaniyami v innovatsionnoy ekonomike. Moscow, 2009. 598 p.

Naryshkin S. E., Khabrieva T. Y., Abramova A. I. et al. Scientific Concept of Development of the Russian Legislation. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, Yu. A. Tikhomirov. 7th ed. Moscow, 2015. 544 p. (In Russ.)

Obespechenie zakonnosti v sfere tsifrovoy ekonomiki. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, N. D. But. Moscow, 2020. 250 p.

The Rule of Law: Theory and Practice. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, N. V. Subanova. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2017. 400 p. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. et al. Legal Administration in the Economy. Actual Problems. Moscow, 2018. 306 p. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Law: Forecasts and Risks. Moscow, 2015. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A., Churakov V. D. Legal authorities in economy: national and international perspective. Zakonodatel'stvo, 2019, no. 8, pp. 41—49. (In Russ.)

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Smart Regulation as the Basis for Improving Modern Law-Making  Pdf 16

M. L. Davydova

Volgograd State University, Volgograd 400062, Russian Federation
E-mail: davidovaml@volsu.ru

Abstract. Many of the modern law-making procedures (regulatory impact assessment, actual impact assessment, legal monitoring, etc.) and technologies (such as regulatory sandboxes) are commonly considered today as elements of “smart” regulation. Despite the active use of this concept in a modern law-making practice and academic research, its essence and differences from traditional legal regulation doesn't remain completely clear.
The purpose of the study is to determine the content and characteristics of smart regulation. This involves the following tasks: a study of the formation of this concept; a comparative analysis of conceptual approaches that have been consistently developed over the past few decades in states that are purposefully improving the traditional mechanism of lawmaking; analysis of regulatory tools used in the framework of smart regulation.
The research is conducted through analytical, comparative legal, prognostic methods.
The results of the study allow one to conclude that smart regulation includes the recommendations of previously emerging approaches such as less and better regulation. The specificity of the concept under consideration is that, using most of the provisions of the previous ones, it shifts the emphasis from the regulatory process to its result, focusing on achieving maximum effect in the least resourceconsuming way. The term “smart” as applied to technical devices is used when at a lower cost it is possible to discover new, previously inaccessible opportunities. Such an interpretation applies to legal regulation. At the macro level, this involves the identification of all possible decision centers and the inclusion of the most influential of them in the regulatory process. At the micro level, a search is underway for tools that can specifically and most effectively solve the problem. In addition to purely legal means, social, psychological, economic mechanisms of influence can be used here. The development of appropriate tools is carried out, in particular, on the basis of modern achievements in behavioral sciences, which allows us to predict the emergence of legal regulation to a new level, concealing both advantages and risks.

Keywords: smart regulation, law-making, legal impact, legal regulation, nudge.

For citation: Davydova M. L. Smart Regulation as the Basis for Improving Modern Law‑Making. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 14—29. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.130

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Golodnikova A. E., Tsygankov D. B., Yunusova M. A. Potential of Using “Nudge” Concept in State Regulation. Voprosy gosudarstvennogo i munitsipal'nogo upravleniya, 2018, no. 3, pp. 7—31. (In Russ.)

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Kalmykova A. V., Kabytov P. P. “Flexible” Structures of Public Administration. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 107—120. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.10

Karmanov A. M. Smart Technologies as a Level Indicator and Quality of Life. Statistics and Economics, 2014, no. 6 (2), pp. 423—428. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Law Facing the Challenges of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 9, pp. 5—16. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_9_1

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_1_7

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Law-making language within the context of digitalization of social relations. Ed. by D. A. Pashentsev, M. V. Zaloilo. Moscow, 2019. 273 p. (In Russ.)

Lyutov N. L. The Transformation of Employment Relations and New Forms of Employment in Digital Economy. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 7, pp. 115—130. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.7.10

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Talapina E. V. Law and Digitalization: New Challenges and Prospects. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 2, pp. 5—17. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_2_1

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■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

On Legal Issues of the Alternation of Power  Pdf 16

V. A. Cherepanov

Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol 355017, Russian Federation
E-mail: sigma45@yandex.ru

Abstract. The issue of alternation of power has become particularly important in view of the constitutional changes determining the number of presidential tenure, but its scientific understanding leaves much to be desired. Scientific research in this field (based on different starting points) produces different perceptions from which opposite conclusions are drawn. It is not uncommon for alternation of power to be seen from a political perspective without proper legal reflection.
The aim of the study is to develop theoretical premises for a legal understanding of the alternation of power in general and of presidential power in particular. This goal is achieved by implementing the following tasks: theoretical interpretation of the concept “alternation of power”, comparative analysis of different approaches to its understanding, taking into account the constitutional practice of different countries, formulation of proposals on ways to resolve problematic issues and their constitutional (legislative) fixation.
The methodological basis of this scientific work is dialectical, systemic, comparative-legal, normative and other methods of cognition.
On the basis of a doctrinal interpretation of the constitutional model of public power, a conceptual approach considers the alternation of power not as a goal in itself, but solely as a means to achieve a different goal - to prevent the alienation of power from the individuals, which is proposed. Based on the historical experience of our country, a model of the alternation of presidential power consists of two interrelated parts, what is proposed here. First is the limitation of the presidential tenure to two terms. Second is the possibility of re-election after its expiry, which is granted to a person who enjoys the confidence of the people and has demonstrated his effectiveness in the presidency. Such extraordinary possibility of re-election, in the author's view, can only be granted by the people themselves through an extraordinary referendum held specifically on the subject. A similar model is proposed for resolving the issue of the alternation of the head of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: alternation of power, presidentialism, limitation of the presidential tenure, conflict between the people and the power, alienation of power from the people, re-election to the president.

For citation: Cherepanov V. A. On Legal Issues of the Alternation of Power. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 30—44. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.131

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■ JUDICIARY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

Ombudsman in the Mechanism of Judicial Protection of Rights and Freedoms  Pdf 16

M. S. Mateykovich, I. S. Romanchuk

M. S. Mateykovicha, I. S. Romanchukb
aSecond cassation court of general jurisdiction, Moscow 121357, Russian Federation
bUniversity of Tyumen, Tyumen 625003, Russian Federation
E-mail: mat-maxim@yandex.ru; iromanchuk@mail.ru

Abstract. The activity of ombudsmen is extremely popular in the society. Over 20 years (from 1998 to 2017) the ombudsman in the Russian Federation has received more than a million complaints. About a third of them are directly related to the activities of the courts, including the issues of fairness of judicial decisions in criminal cases. The article raises the question of the sufficiency of the powers of the ombudsman, of competition between various state bodies whose competence includes the protection of human rights and freedoms.
The main objective of the study is to develop recommendations for improving the legal regulation of relations between ombudsmen and courts. To achieve this goal, the author has set goals to compare Russian and foreign legislation, identify the main constitutional models of interaction, identify possible shortcomings and propose measures to eliminate them.
The research literature is the regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation and its constituent entities, as well as 72 foreign countries and reports of ombudsmen.
It is concluded that the model of interaction between the ombudsmen and the judiciary, formed in modern Russia, is optimal. This is evident due to its constitutional development, the system of state bodies, the status of the President and the historically established role of the prosecutor's office. It is proposed to use this institution more widely in the mechanism of pre-trial dispute resolution. It is also necessary to expand the organizational conditions for consideration by the Ombudsman of appeals on compliance with criminal and criminal procedure laws.

Keywords: protection of human rights, ombudsman, judicial authority, prosecutor's office.

For citation: Mateykovich M. S., Romanchuk I. S. Ombudsman in the Mechanism of Judicial Protection of Rights and Freedoms. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 45—57. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.132

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Zhuravleva O. O. On a Question of Correlation of Terms “Tax Control” and “Control over Observance of Dues and Tax Legislation”. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2009, no. 7, pp. 23—31. (In Russ.)

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Judicial Review: A Means of Legal Protection or of Law-Making? (On the Issue of Constitutional Features of an Optimal Model)  Pdf 16

S. A. Gracheva

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: sinobi_unit@mail.ru

Abstract. This work deals with the phenomenon of judicial review (control) as a judicial function. Its (ideas) evolution (largely under the influence of the convergence of legal systems) allows us to consider it in two ways. On the one hand, judicial review serves to ensure the hierarchical order of legal regulation (more embodying its normative perspective). In this sense, its spreading assessment (beyond the envisaged powers to judicially challenge legal acts of various levels) is associated with the risks of judicial activism and legal making, which are historically stem from the continental legal tradition. On the other hand, the named judicial function can be identified with attention to it as an important component of judicial guarantee and protection of rights and freedoms (as a legal remedy). However, the acceptance of this aspect of judicial review, despite the obvious recognition of such goal-setting (including those on the example of domestic experience), is associated with the difficulties of its “formalization” (by criteria, objects of legal assessment) and, accordingly, procedural (methodological) support. Such a dual approach to judicial review is largely determined by a comprehensive view of the problem of the judicial guarantee of the Constitution (the role of the court in ensuring the constitutionality of regulation), which is also manifested primarily from the position of its social (or natural-legal) interpretation. In this sense, the basis for judicial review are constitutionally provided approaches that have become a consequence of the "continental" development of integrative ideas about law (legal thinking), revealing the possibilities of combining the concepts of law, its instrumental enrichment. In this respect, the constitutionally significant (promising) model of judicial review receives universalization, first of all, due to its enrichment with general legal principles (recognized ideas of law), which have found constitutional recognition in varying degrees of concretization, consistency, and, in general, understood as a "normative basis" courts referring to general legal provisions (as criteria of legal regulation). On this general legal basis, the topic of direct application of the Constitution of the Russian Federation by the courts is being developed. Its development stages show attention to judicial review from the standpoint of exercising normative control (review over compliance with the priority norm) in relation to the idea of human rights as an object of judicial protection. Furthermore, the practice of the European Court of Human Right is a factor of methodological attention to the latter, which proposes a model of judicial review as a means of legal protection in the Council of Europe order.

Keywords: justice, judicial control, integrative (synthetic) approach, constitutional legitimation, application of general principles (values) of law, legal remedy, judicial discretion.

For citation: Gracheva S. A. Judicial Review: A Means of Legal Protection or of Law-Making? (On the Issue of Constitutional Features of an Optimal Model). Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 58—77. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.133

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■ LABOR LAW AND SOCIAL SECURITY LAW

Social Rights of Citizens Using Artificial Intelligence: Legal Bases and Gaps in Legislative Regulation in Russia  Pdf 16

M. A. Lipchanskaya, T. V. Zametina

M. A. Lipchanskayaa, T. V. Zametinab
aState University of Management, Moscow 109542, Russian Federation
bSaratov State Law Academy, Saratov 410056, Russian Federation
E-mail: lipchan_maria@mail.ru; zametina_saratov@mail.ru

Abstract. In recent decades, the development of innovative technologies and artificial intelligence systems has also been studied by legal scholars. An unambiguous understanding of artificial intelligence as a category of constitutional law, as an object of constitutional legal regulation and as a subject of legal relations has not yet been achieved. Of course, the issue of recognizing artificial intelligence as a subject of constitutional and legal relations is not yet relevant. However, issues of legislative regulation of basic, including social, human rights in the context of the development and use of artificial intelligence systems are already on the agenda. To form a high-quality system of legal regulation of social rights in the digital space, it is advisable to monitor the current legislation in order to consolidate the possibility of using artificial intelligence in the implementation of human social rights.
The purpose of the study is to identify gaps in the legislative regulation of certain social rights using artificial intelligence. The goal is specified in the following tasks: to conduct a doctrinal analysis of the category of “artificial intelligence” in legal science and other branches of knowledge; identify the use of this concept in the current Russian legislation, show the conceptual constitutional guidelines in the use of artificial intelligence; based on the foundations of the constitutional system, the system of constitutional and legal guarantees of human rights, to study the features of legal regulation of certain social rights using the latest technologies and artificial intelligence.
The methodological basis is recognized by the general scientific and private scientific methods of cognition used in legal science. The conclusions are based on scientific research in the field of doctrinal understanding of the category of artificial intelligence, on the analysis of normative legal acts, which regulate social rights and freedoms.
Main results and brief conclusions: the definition of artificial intelligence of constitutional law acceptable for science is proposed; conceptual constitutional attitudes in the field of the use of artificial intelligence are defined; based on the analysis of doctrinal and strategic documents adopted in the Russian Federation and focused on the development of artificial intelligence in the Russian state, the tendencies of using AI in the realization of social rights and freedoms are formulated, the features of the realization of some social rights using artificial intelligence are shown, as well as the gaps of their legislative regulation and conclusions are drawn and aimed at improving legislation in this area.

Keywords: social rights of a man and citizen, artificial intelligence, legal regulation, strategy, national interests.

For citation: Lipchanskaya M. A., Zametina T. V. Social Rights of Citizens Using Artificial Intelligence: Legal Bases and Gaps in Legislative Regulation in Russia. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 78—96. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.134

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Early Retirement Benefits for Insured Persons with Family Responsibilities  Pdf 16

E. G. Azarova

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: labour@izak.ru

Abstract. Russian law provides certain categories of citizens with family responsibilities with the opportunity to receive an old-age insurance pension before reaching the generally established retirement age. The criteria for the provision of such a pension, the conditions required for its appointment, their theoretical justification and the problems of improving legislation are of great scientific interest.
The purpose of the study is a comprehensive analysis of the general and special conditions for granting the right to an old-age insurance pension to the following categories of citizens: women who have given birth and raised three or more children; women with two children working in the northern regions of the country; parents and guardians of persons with disabilities since childhood. The objectives of the study: to determine whether the possibility of receiving early retirement benefits is available for these individuals; to analyze how accurate and unambiguous the concepts used in the regulation of the relevant relations are; to study the theoretical justification of early retirement benefits and proposals for further improvement of the legislation in this area.
Research methods: formal logical interpretation, systemic and comparative analysis.
The performance of socially significant functions of upbringing and family care for children, including those with disabilities, by insured citizens is associated with increased psychological, emotional and physical stress, and high material costs. These objectively significant circumstances, as well as the difficulties of dual employment - at home and at work for hire - give the legislator grounds to establish special conditions of pension provision for them. Early retirement of these individuals should not be associated with the promotion of fertility. It is fair and appropriate for any demographic situation. The understanding of the circle of people who perform family responsibilities for children and need pension benefits changes over time, which also leads to its expansion. At the same time, the possibility of receiving a pension should be the same for all insured citizens with equal family responsibilities and sufficient insurance experience, regardless of their salary level.

Keywords: old-age insurance pension, persons with family responsibilities, reduced retirement age, women who raised three or more children; northerners by children; parents and guardians of disabled people since childhood.

For citation: Azarova E. G. Early Retirement Benefits for Insured Persons with Family Responsibilities. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 97—112. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.135

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Samsonova V. O. Pension coverage of families raising disabled child: russian and foreign experience of legal regulation. Sotsial'noe i pensionnoe pravo, 2017, no. 3. pp. 39—43. (In Russ).

Situatsiya: kak naznachaetsya pensiya materi (ottsu) rebenka-invalida? Elektronnyy zhurnal “Azbuka prava”, 2020. Access from SPS “Consultant Plus”.

Sotsial'noe obespechenie: nastoyashchee i budushchee. Ed. by M. L. Zakharov, Yu. V. Voronin. Moscow, 2017. 688 p.

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■ ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL LAW

The Impact of Digitalization on the Implementation of the Executive Authorities’ Powers  Pdf 16

P. P. Kabytov, O. E. Starodubova

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: adm1@izak.ru

Abstract. Digitalization of public administration is a global trend. The ambitious programs and projects implemented in the Russian Federation to digitalize public administration have an impact on the administrative and legal status of Executive authorities.
The purpose of the study is to determine the consequences of digitalization for the mechanism for implementing the powers of Executive authorities.
Methods: formal legal, formal logical, legal interpretation, and General scientific methods.
Digital technologies are playing an increasingly important role in the implementation of the executive authorities' powers. The use of digital technologies not only improves the efficiency of control and supervision activities and the availability of public services, but also affects the mechanism for implementing these powers by executive authorities. Under the influence of digitalization, the process of implementing the executive authorities' powers, the order and principles of their interaction with each other, citizens and organizations is being transformed. New forms of control and supervision measures and types of public services are emerging. There is a change in the model of regulation of certain spheres of society. Although the digitalization of public administration has had an impact on all elements of the administrative and legal status of executive authorities, the practice of implementing control and supervisory powers and powers to provide public services by executive authorities has been most affected. The authors demonstrate the impact of the use of digital technologies in the implementation of the powers of Executive authorities on legislation on the organization of public services and legislation on state control (supervision).

Keywords: digitalization, competence, functions, powers, state, executive authorities.

For citation: Kabytov P. P., Starodubova O. E. The Impact of Digitalization on the Implementation of the Executive Authorities’ Powers. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 113—126. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.136

References

Analiticheskiy doklad 2018 “Kontrol'no-nadzornaya i razreshitel'naya deyatel'nost' v Rossiyskoy Federatsii”. Moscow, 2019. Available at: https://conf.hse.ru/mirror/pubs/share/263119916.

Bachilo I. L., Brodskiy I. L., Vengerov A. B., Vishnyakov V. G. et al. Organizatsionno-pravovye problemy ASU. Ed. by I. L. Bachilo, Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 1979.

Buttarelli G. Privacy matters: updating human rights for the digital society. Health and Technology, 2017, vol. 7, no. 4. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12553-017-0198-y().

Dobrolyubova E. I., Yuzhakov V. N., Efremov A. A. et al. Tsifrovoe budushchee gosudarstvennogo upravleniya po rezul'tatam. Moscow, 2019.

Innovatsionnye metody nadzora za ekspluatatsiey samokhodnoy tekhniki, attraktsionov i profilaktiki narusheniy obyazatel'nykh trebovaniy. Available at: https://knd.ac.gov.ru/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Gostehnadzor-goroda-Moskvy_profilaktika.pdf.

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_1_7 (In Russ.)

Legal Concept of Robotization. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, S. B. Nanba. Moscow, 2019. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Morozov A. E. Modification of the financial control model in the conditions of digital transformation. Vestnik universiteta imeni O. E. Kutafina (MGYuA), 2019, no. 7, pp. 22—26. (In Russ).

Nozdrachev A. F., Zyryanov S. M., Kalmykova A. V. Reform of State Control (Supervision) in the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 9, pp. 34—46. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/article_599d74421f88b5.06552344

Pashentsev D. A., Zaloilo M. V., Ivanyuk O. A., Golovina A. A. The digitalization of law-making: the search for new solutions. Moscow, 2019. 234 p. (In Russ.)

Shcheglov E. N. Procedural and Institutional Aspects of Establishment and Development of Automated Management Systems in the Russian Federation. Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2017, no. 10, pp. 17—21. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Impact of Digitalization on the Competence of Federal Executive Authorities. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2018, no. 12, pp. 90—94. (In Russ.)

Zaloilo M. V. Anticipatory Nature of Law-Making and the Problem of Synchronization of Legal Regulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 9, pp. 20—29. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.9.2

Zubarev S. M., Sladkova A. V. On the Concept and Essence of Digital Control Technologies in Public Administration. Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2019, no. 9, pp. 53—59. (In Russ).

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■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW

Features of the Formation of the Eurasian Regional Model of International Legal Regulation of Research Mobility  Pdf 16

R. Sh. Davletgildeev, S. I. Tsygantsova

Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russian Federation
E-mail: roustem.davletguildeev@kpfu.ru; tsygantsova.sandra@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article reveals the theoretical problems of formation of the Eurasian regional model of international legal regulation of researchers' mobility and gives the author's recommendations for their elimination.
Its aim is to study the main documents of research mobility in the various regional organizations of Eurasia. The objectives of the study include the formulation of a common understanding of research mobility, the identification of strengths and weaknesses in the regulation of this phenomenon in Eurasia, as well as the formation of recommendations.
The article uses both general theoretic (analysis, generalization and systemic approach) and special-legal methods (historical-legal, formal-legal, comparative, as well as the method of legal forecasting).
Based on the results of the study, the authors conclude that Eurasian regional organizations have every chance to establish effective cooperation on legal issues of research mobility both among themselves and with third countries. However, some shortcomings have been identified. These include the lack of a system of available sources and other legal problems, both in law-making and in law enforcement. The authors also note that there is an extremely small number of legal documents regulating research mobility as well as the prevailing number of acts of a recommendatory nature and blanket norms. In addition, insufficient attention was noted to the implementation of mechanisms for the mobility of researchers in the network universities of the CIS and SСO. At the same time, the accumulated potential of cooperation in the CIS, the EAEU, the Union State of Belarus and Russia, the SCO, the Turkic Council can be used in the formation of the Eurasian regional model of international legal regulation of researchers' mobility. In our view, the EAEU has the greatest potential expectations, as integration has led to significant successes in the legal regulation of many other areas. In addition, it is worth paying attention to the experience of the Turkic Council, whose practice in promoting scientific cooperation and academic mobility could be taken into account in the EAEU.

Keywords: research mobility, academic mobility, CIS, EAEU, Union State of Belarus and Russia, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Turkic Council, Eurasian regional model of international legal regulation of research mobility.

For citation: Davletgildeev R. Sh., Tsygantsova S. I. Features of the Formation of the Eurasian Regional Model of International Legal Regulation of Research Mobility. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 127—139. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.137

References

Bagirova S. The Objectives, Plans and Prospects of the Cooperation Council of Turkic States. European Journal of Philosophical Research, 2014, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 80—88. DOI: 10.13187/ejpr.2014.2.80.

Chavykina M. A. Academic mobility in the EAEU countries: current state and development prospects. Kreativnaya ekonomika, 2017, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 931—942. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.18334/ce.11.9.38350.

Davletgil'deev R. Sh. International legal regulations of labour migration in the Eurasian region: A tentative attempt at approximating the EU's free movement of workers? Zhurnal issledovaniya sotsial'noy politiki = Zhurnal Issledovanii Sotsial'noi Politiki, 2018, no. 16 (4), pp. 595—610. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.17323/727-0634-2018-16-4-595-610.

Davletgil'deev R.Sh. On legal nature of the CIS and of the Russia-Belaruss Union. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2000, no. 7, pp. 148—153. (In Russ.)

Efremova L. I., Fedorov R. G. 10 Years of University of Shanghai Cooperation Organization: main results. RUDN Journal of World History, 2017, vol. 9 (4), pp. 363—369. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.22363/2312-8127-2017-9-4-363-369.

Filippov V., Sun' Yuykhua. The role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization University in the Interface Educational Spaces of Eurasia. Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba, 2015, no. 6 (98), pp. 15—17. (In Russ).

Guthrie S., Lichten C., Corbett J., Wooding S. International mobility of researchers. A review of the literature. Rand Corporation, 2017. Available at: https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/projects/international-mobility/researcher-mobility-report-review-literature.pdf (accessed 16.10.2019).

Guzzetti L. A Brief History of European Union Research Policy. Luxembourg, 1995. P. 52. Available at: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/5043da4dbadf-4d9b-9da1-c1f10fa4a58c (accessed 14.08.2019).

Ivanov G. V. Formirovanie edinogo rynka uslug nauchno-issledovatel'skogo prostranstva v usloviyakh Evraziyskoy ekonomicheskoy integratsii. Bol'shaya Evraziya: Razvitie, bezopasnost', sotrudnichestvo, 2018, no. 1—2, pp. 79—82.

Kashkin S. Yu., Chetverikov A. O. Pravo Evraziyskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza. Ed. by S. Yu. Kashkin. Moscow, 2019. 191 p.

Kozlova E. S., Kuz'min I. A. International legal regulation of academic mobility as social process at higher school. Vestnik Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 9 (80), pp. 261—268. (In Russ.)

Makareev N. A. Educational Space of the Union State of Belarus and Russia as a Resource of the Integration and Development of the Eurasian Integration. Nauchno-analiticheskiy vestnik Instituta Evropy RAN, 2019, no. 3, pp. 133—139. (In Russ.) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15211/vestnikieran32019133139.

Nechaeva E. K. Pravovoe regulirovanie nauchnykh issledovaniy i tekhnologicheskogo razvitiya v ramkakh regional'nykh integratsionnykh organizatsiy (na primere Evropeyskogo Soyuza i Evraziyskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza). Cand. diss. Moscow, 2017. 173 p.

Vasil'eva S. A. EAEU and the Turkic Council: Prospects for Cooperation. Izvestiya Ural'skogo federal'nogo universiteta. Seriya 3: Obshchestvennye nauki, 2018, vol. 13, no. 3 (179), pp. 184—192. (In Russ.)

Voronina N. A. External labor migration within the framework of the Eurasian integration: legal aspects. Trudy Instituta gosudarstva i prava RAN, 2017, no. 1. pp. 94—113. (In Russ.)

Yun S. M. Educational cooperation in the Eurasian Economic Union: problems and prospects. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Istoriya, 2017, no. 50, pp. 89—92. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17223/19988613/50/13

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Indirect International Jurisdiction in the Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments of 2019 (Part II)  Pdf 16

A. I. Shchukin

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: pil@izak.ru

Abstract. Following the results of the 22nd diplomatic session of the Hague Conference on Private International Law in 2019, the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judicial Decisions in Civil and Commercial Matters was signed. The main aim of the Convention is to create a predictable and effective regime for cross-border circulation of court decisions in civil-law cases. The instruments of the Convention are universal and fully regulate the procedure for recognition and enforcement of decisions of foreign courts, ensuring their mobility through judicial cooperation. In particular, the document indicates the grounds for both recognition and enforcement of decisions, and grounds for refusing to issue an exequatur. The Convention has the goal to ensure access to justice, is designed to reduce the costs of the parties and the risks associated with the implementation of international trade and investment activities and, as a result, to increase the attractiveness of resolving crossborder disputes by state courts.
The article analyzes the provisions of the Convention relating to one of the central issues considered in the case of recognition and enforcement of foreign court decisions — the issue of indirect international jurisdiction. The Convention sets out a list of grounds for jurisdiction, thereby creating an international obligation to recognize and enforce decisions made in accordance with these jurisdictional criteria.

Keywords: Hague Judgments Convention of 2 July 2019, indirect international jurisdiction, jurisdictional criterion (filter), recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, exequatur.

For citation: Shchukin A. I. Indirect International Jurisdiction in the Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments of 2019 (Part II). Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 140—154. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.138

References

Bonomi A. Courage or caution? A critical overview of the Hague preliminary draft on judgments. Yearbook of Private International Law, vol. XVII, 2015/2016.

Garcimartín F. The Judgments Convention: Some Open Questions. Netherlands International Law Review, 2020. Available at: https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40802-020-00153-8
(accessed  23.03.2020).

Kadner Graziano T. M. Jurisdiction under article 7 no. 1 of the recast Brussels I regulation: disconnecting the procedural place of performance from its counterpart in substantive law. An analysis of the case law of the ECJ and proposals de lege lata and de lege ferenda. Yearbook of Private International Law, vol. XVI, 2014/2015, pp. 167—217.

Note on the concept of “Purposeful and Substantial Connection” prepared by professor Ronald A. Brand and Dr. Cristina M. Mariottini (para. 5). Available at: https://assets.hcch.net/docs/94caa6bc-ca61-45ce-8ddb-8f724174d1b1.pdf (accessed 23.03.2020).

Osipov A. O. Institute of international jurisdiction in the arbitration process. Moscow, 2014. 176 p. (In Russ.).

Shchukin A. I. The Hague Convention on choice of court agreements 2005: main provisions. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2006, no. 5, pp. 41—48. (In Russ.).

Shebanova N. A. Property of the Russian Federation abroad: legal regulation and protection. Moscow, 2010. 396 p. (In Russ.).

Stewart D. P. The Hague Conference Adopts a New Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil or Commercial Matters. American Journal of International Law, 2019, vol. 113, iss. 4, pp. 772—783.

Teitz L. E. Another Hague Judgments Convention? Bucking the Past to Provide for the Future. Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, 2019, vol. 29, pp. 491—511.

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■ SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF COUNTERING CORRUPTION

Disciplinary and Judicial Practice in Cases on Dismissal for a Corruption Offense Due to Loss of Trust  Pdf 16

Yu. V. Truntsevskiy

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: trunzev@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes disciplinary and judicial practice in cases on dismissal for a corruption offense due to loss of trust. This article is interesting for researchers, employees and managers of state and municipal agency and organizations.
The purpose of the study is to systematize the legal grounds for dismissal due to loss of trust, reflected in the materials of disciplinary and judicial practice.
Research methods: analysis, generalization, comparison, description, abstraction.
Research result. The analysis of disciplinary and judicial practice allowed the author: to provide generalized data on persons included in the register who were dismissed due to loss of trust; to systematize the circumstances (grounds) recognized by the courts as legal or illegal when the employer's representative makes a decision to dismiss a civil servant due to loss of trust: a) the circumstances (grounds) recognized by the courts as legal: compliance with the law; the presence of a conflict of interest, as a result of: the veiled personal interest in the performance of official duties; misuse of friendly relations; providing incomplete (deliberately false) information; the provision by the plaintiff of paid services under a civil contract; not to transfer in trust management belonging to the plaintiff of shares; failure to provide information on income; non-performance by plaintiff of his official duties; the nature and severity of a corruption offense; the severity of the previous disciplinary penalties for corruption offences; a guilty verdict against the plaintiff; the adoption by the representative of the employer preventive measures; compliance with the order of service checks and order of dismissal; order of application to the plaintiff sanctions for a corruption offense in the form of dismissal, etc.; b) the circumstances (reasons), recognized illegal by the courts no evidence was presented to the court; was not taken into account the gravity of the offense; no intent on evading the submission of information about income; the plaintiff was taken all the measures; the plaintiff's valid personal circumstances, previous results of the plaintiff's performance of his official duties are taken into account; the report does not reflect the content of the plaintiff's personal interests, or failure to take measures to prevent a conflict of interests, as well as which interests; the conflict of interests was resolved; other illegal arguments, etc.

Keywords: corruption, public authorities, civil servant, dismissal, loss of trust, court decision, lawsuit.

For citation: Truntsevskiy Yu. V. Disciplinary and Judicial Practice in Cases on Dismissal for a Corruption Offense Due to Loss of Trust. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 155—173. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.139

References

Ivanov S. B., Khabrieva T. Y., Chikhanchin Yu. A. et al. Counteraction Corruption: New Challenges. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2016. (In Russ.)

Kabanov P. A. The negative effects of layoffs in connection with loss of trust for the Commission of a disciplinary offense of corruption. Monitoring pravoprimeneniya, 2019, no. 2. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Andrichenko L. V., Tsirin A. M. et al. Organizational and legal mechanisms for sounteracting corruption in the subjects of Russian Federation. Moscow, 2019. (In Russ.)

Pashentsev D. A., Zaloilo M. V., Tsirin A. M. et al. Legislation in the Field of Combating Corruption: A Conceptual Framework and Place in the System of Russian Law: scientific and practical guide. Ed. by D. A. Pashentsev. Moscow, 2020. (In Russ.)

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■ YOUNG SCIENTIST’S TRIBUNE

Risk Assessment Method in Concepts and Acts of Strategic Planning of National Security and Anti-Corruption  Pdf 16

M. V. Inkina

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: maria.inkina@gmail.com

Abstract. In recent years, the discourse on countering corruption in its various manifestations has increasingly focused on assessing corruption risks; however, the role and potential of this extremely important tool remain unstudied.
The purpose of the article is to study the potential of corruption risk assessment in Russia; the task is to obtain a systematic picture of the evolution, current role and existing “gaps” in the application of corruption risk assessment.
The author used a comparative analysis of relevant legal sources and documents (national security strategies, national anti-corruption plans and national anti-corruption strategies) in terms of highlighting the phenomenon of corruption, assessing its risks and methods of such assessment.
Further implementation of the analysis of corruption risks in various sectors of the Russian economy has a significant potential to identify the most corruption-dangerous industries and specific types of activities in them, where it is necessary to strengthen monitoring and control, identify corruption schemes specific to these types of activities and take measures to combat these schemes. Moreover, the potential for assessing corruption risks is currently underutilized in at least one dimension - the regional one. Although the implementation of a unified state anti-corruption policy implies a certain standardization of the legal framework, methods and approaches used in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation with those at the Federal level, this does not imply total unification, which will be more harmful than beneficial to the fight against corruption, since in this case the specific features of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation will not be taken into account.

Keywords: corruption risk assessment, corruption risk assessment methods, national security corruption risks, corruption-dangerous functions.

For citation: Inkina M. V. Risk Assessment Method in Concepts and Acts of Strategic Planning of National Security and Anti-Corruption. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 174—186. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.140

References

Corruption: nature, types, counteraction. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2012. 688 p. (In Russ.)

Gorta A. Corruption risk areas and corruption resistance. In Sampford Ch., Shacklock A., Connors C., Galtung F. (eds.). Measuring corruption. Aldershot, 2006. Pp. 203—220.

Hansen H. K., Stachowicz-Stanusch A. Varieties of corruption control: introduction to special issue. Crime, Law and Social Change, 2013, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 115—126.

Harris R. Political Corruption: In Beyond the Nation State. Routledge, 2003. 264 p.

Iliy S. K. Administrative offences of corruption character. Administrativnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 460—468. (In Russ.)

Ivanov S. B., Khabrieva T. Y., Chikhanchin Yu. A. et al. Combating corruption. New challenges. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2016. 373 p. (In Russ.)

Polyakov M. M. Corruption administrative offences: definition, types and content. Vestnik Universiteta imeni O. E. Kutafina, 2015, no. 8, pp. 209—213. (In Russ.)

Prosecutor's Office of the Primorsky Territory. Administrative responsibility for corruption offenses. (In Russ.) Available at: http://prosecutor.ru/right/2017-01-18-administrativnaya.htm.

Tsirin A. M., Truntsevskiy Yu. V., Seval'nev V. V. Assessment of corruption risks in federal executive authorities. Moscow, 2019. 112 p. (In Russ.)

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■ REVIEWS

Modern Doctrine of Anti-Corruption Education: Search for the Optimal Model (Review of the Book: Anti-Corruption Legal Education: Scientific and Practical Guide / D. A. Pashentsev, M. V. Zaloilo, Yu. V. Truntsevsky, etc.; ed. by D. A. Pashentsev. Moscow, 2020. 144 p.)  Pdf 16

L. T. Chikhladze

Law Institute, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow 117198, Russian Federation
E-mail: levanbook@gmail.com

For citation: Chikhladze L. T. Modern Doctrine of Anti-Corruption Education: Search for the Optimal Model (Review of the Book: Anti-Corruption Legal Education: Scientific and Practical Guide / D. A. Pashentsev, M. V. Zaloilo, Yu. V. Truntsevsky, etc.; ed. by D. A. Pashentsev. Moscow, 2020. 144 p.). Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 187—191. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.141

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■ LEGAL LIFE. CHRONICLE

Professor V. V. Lazarev’s Creative Contribution to the Formation and Modernization of the International Scientific and Practical Forum “Yurtechnetics”  Pdf 16

V. M. Baranov

Nizhny Novgorod Center for Scientific and Applied Studies “Legal Writing Techniques”, Nizhny Novgorod 603081, Russian Federation
E-mail: baranov_prof@bk.ru

For citation: Baranov V. M. Professor V. V. Lazarev's Creative Contribution to the Formation and Modernization of the International Scientific and Practical Forum “Yurtechnetics”. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 11, pp. 192—201. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.142

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Contents of issues:

2021
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997