Contents of issue # 4/2020

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Law: A Moment of Stillness or Anticipatory Impact on Social Processes

Tikhomirov Yu. A.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: office2@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.038

Abstract
The socio-economic, scientific-technological and natural processes, which occur in a life of a person and society are influenced by various factors. Among them, an important place is occupied by law, which has a powerful intellectual, moral and regulatory potential. The article attempts to identify the underlying mechanisms of legal influence when law is considered both as a value of society and as a regulator that has a powerful effect on the ongoing processes. The analysis of the “article of law” allows, on the one hand, to determine the optimal quality of legal awareness, law-making and the system of legislation, and on the other hand, to note in the process of legal understanding the perception of legal values and regulators in society. New methods of legal forecasting, modeling and diagnosis of risks allow providing the law with such features. These tools and the use of new information technologies give the law the quality of a process control mechanism.
The article shows the most typical manifestations of the successful formation of new legal states, i.e. the dynamic stage of social development and erroneous legal decisions and actions. A special place is given to the analysis of the “multidimensional nature” of the development of law, which allows us to abandon the naive single-line development of law. This is, firstly, about institutional complications, when many bodies and structures operate in the system of scientific legal postulates. Secondly, the mechanism of multilayer regulation is proved when the correlation of national and international law develop in a contradictory way, and when the law does not find upper links with other norms (political, ethical, religious, etc.). Thirdly, the influence is noticeable in such a vector as expanding digitalization of management, the economy of other areas, which generates regulatory transformation. Fourth, a clear underestimation of the mechanisms of the formation of legal consciousness and legal behavior in science and practice needs to be overcome. Otherwise, “text” law remains today. Timely regulation and other vectors are on the agenda.

Keywords
law, regulation, leading impacts, legal forecasts and risks, legal state of the vector, development of law.

For citation
Tikhomirov Yu. A. Law: A Moment of Stillness or Anticipatory Impact on Social Processes. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 5—16. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.038 (In Russ.)

References

Bekhmann G. Sovremennoe obshchestvo (obshchestvo riska, informatsionnoe obshchestvo, obshchestvo znaniy). Moscow, 2019.

Organizatsionno-pravovye problemy ASU. Moscow, 1979.

Pravovoe prostranstvo: granitsy i dinamiki. Moscow, 2019.

Rossiya-2015. Optimisticheskiy stsenariy. Moscow, 1999.

Taler R. Novaya povedencheskaya ekonomika. Pochemu lyudi narushayut pravila traditsionnoy ekonomiki i kak na etom zarabotat'. Moscow, 2018.

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Yuridicheskoe prognozirovanie. Moscow, 2018.

Yuridicheskaya kontseptsiya robotizatsii. Moscow, 2019.

Zalesskiy V. V. Laws of the nature and legal laws. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2007, no. 10, pp. 35—41. (In Russ.)

Zor'kin V. D. Pravo v usloviyakh global'nykh peremen. Moscow, 2013.

■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

The President of the Russian Federation as a Guarantor of Information and Legal Security of the Individual

Kolosova N. M., Kolosov K. M.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: const@izak.ru; foreign@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.039

Abstract
The article studies features of a constitutional legal status of the President of the Russian Federation, which affects the process of ensuring the information security of an individual. In this context the features of the constitutional regulation of the personal information security are studied. The author's concept is presented as personal information security and its components. By “personal information security”, it is proposed to understand the provision of personal access to information and the protection of personal data, which includes all information about the person, including his/her private life.
The article considers main powers of the President of the Russian Federation, which affect personal information security. It is noted that the President of the Russian Federation directly and through federal ministers directs the activities of federal executive bodies that provide information to Russian citizens and are designed to ensure the information confidentiality of a particular person. The personnel and other powers of the President of the Russian Federation are analyzed in the context of the topic of this study. The rule-making function of the President of the Russian Federation is considered. Accordingly, the acts of the President of the Russian Federation are compared with federal laws.
In addition, the Fundamentals of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of ensuring chemical and biological safety for the period up to 2025 and a further perspective, approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, are analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed genetic certification of the population should be accompanied by the development of a set of measures aimed at ensuring the information rights of the Russian citizen, so the threat of the private life violation increase.

Keywords
President of the Russian Federation, information security, personal security, personal data, right to access information, decrees of the President of the Russian Federation.

For citation
Kolosova N. M., Kolosov K. M. The President of the Russian Federation as a Guarantor of Information and Legal Security of the Individual. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 17—27. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.039 (In Russ.)

References

Bachilo I. L. The Information right. Moscow, 2009. 530 p. (In Russ.).

Banisar D. Freedom of information and access to government documents. Moscow, 2004. 160 p. (In Russ.)

Bondar N. S. Information and Digital Space in the Constitutional Dimension: From the Practice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 25—42. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.2 (In Russ.)

Degtev G. V. Formation and development of the institution of the presidency in Russia. Moscow, 2005. 237 p. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Law Facing the Challenges of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 9, pp. 5—16. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_9_1 (In Russ.)

Khamaneva N. Yu. Ispolnitel'naya vlast' v Rossii. Istoriya i sovremennost', problemy I perspektivy razvitiya. M., 2004.

Kudryavtsev M. A. Personal Information Rights: The Problem of Institutional Guarantees. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2018, no. 6, pp. 26—30. (In Russ.)

Tereshchenko L. K. The Conceptual Framework of the Information and Telecommunication Law: Enforcement Issues. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 10, pp. 101—108. DOI: 10.12737/21538 (In Russ.)

Cultural Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen: Issues of Content, Methodology and Classification

Ivakina D. S.

Kaliningrad Branch, Moscow University of Finance and Law MFUA, Kaliningrad 236000, Russian Federation
E-mail: shaporeva12@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.040

Abstract
The article is devoted to an urgent problem — studying the institution of cultural rights and freedoms of man and citizen as an independent group of human and civil rights and freedoms in the Russian Federation.
The aim of the study is to analyze the constitutional legal nature of cultural rights and freedoms. The tasks are to study the characteristics of cultural rights and to analyze the categories “cultural values”, “cultural life", analysis of entitlements of cultural rights and freedoms, study of systems, etc.
The dialectical method of cognition, as well as system, cultural and others methods, are the methodological basis of this research.
Using the knowledge of culturological and legal science, the author's definition of cultural rights and freedoms is proposed. In particular, cultural rights and freedoms of man and citizen should be understood as a special group of rights and freedoms of man and citizen, which are guaranteed by the constitution or law opportunities for self-realization of a person in the field of cultural and scientific life, as well as state guarantees for the possibilities of everyone to freely use the full range of cultural goods and meet their needs in this area.
The author comes to the following conclusions: 1) cultural rights and freedoms of man and citizen are an independent group of rights and have their own system and features; 2) cultural rights and freedoms of man and citizen occupy an independent place in the system of fundamental rights and freedoms of an individual in The Russian Federation, however, they are closely linked to political and socio-economic rights; 3) the process of establishing the institution of cultural rights is not yet completed, and in the constitutional law science a special place should be occupied by studies of this group of rights because of their significance.

Keywords
cultural rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen, signs of cultural rights and freedoms, system of cultural rights and freedoms, independent group of rights and freedoms.

For citation
Ivakina D. S.Cultural Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen: Issues of Content, Methodology and Classification. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 28—41. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.040 (In Russ.)

References

Arkhipov I. V., Sharapov N. N. Legal regulation of the turnover of cultural property. Saratov, 2003. 96 p. (In Russ.)

Baranov V. M., Kolesnikov E. V. The Constitution of the Russian Federation and the development of constitutional social rights of citizens. Yuridicheskaya nauka i praktika: Vestnik Nizhegorodskoy akademii MVD Rossii, 2018, no. 4, pp. 12—18. (In Russ.)

Ebzeev B. S. Man, people, state in the constitutional system of the Russian Federation. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2017. 656 p. (In Russ.)

Goralczyk W. Prawo miedzynarodowe publiczne w zarysie. Warszawa, 1995. 430 p.

Khabrieva T. Y., Chirkin V. E. Theory of the modern constitution. Moscow, 2005. 719 p. (In Russ.)

Khoruzhenko K. M. Culturology: Encyclopedic Dictionary. Rostov-on-Don, 1997. 639 p. (In Russ.)

Kozlova E. I., Kutafin O. E.Constitutional law of the Russian Federation. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2003. 585 p. (In Russ.)

Krasnov M. A., Kryazhkov V. A. Explanatory Dictionary of Constitutional Terms and Concepts. Moscow, 2006. 424 p. (In Russ.)

Large legal dictionary. 3rd ed. Ed. by A. Ya. Sukharev. Moscow, 2007. 856 p. (In Russ.)

Mel'nik T. E. The concept of the development of legislation on culture. Concepts of the development of Russian legislation. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2010. 732 p. (In Russ.)

Morozova A. N. Constitutional and legal guarantees of citizen participation in the cultural life of Russian society. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2005. 26 p. (In Russ.)

Neshataeva V. O. Cultural values. Price and law. Moscow, 2013. 208 p. (In Russ.)

Prawa czlowieka w systemie norm miedzynarowych. Warszawa; Poznan, 1982. 427 p.

Sazonnikova E. V. The science of constitutional law of Russia and the concept of “culture”: issues of theory and practice. Dr. diss. Moscow, 2012. 387 p. (In Russ.)

Symonides J. Miedzynarodowa ochrona praw czlowieka. Warszawa, 1977. 402 p.

Ul'yanova N. B. Education by art, the process of forming a culture of morality, cooperation and creation. Kul'tura: upravlenie, ekonomika, pravo, 2019, no. 1, pp. 21—25. (In Russ.)

Yanovich M. V. Constitutional right to access to cultural heritage in the Russian Federation. Cand. diss. thesis. Arkhangel'sk, 2016. 26 p. (In Russ.)

■ SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF COUNTERING CORRUPTION

The Development of Anti-Corruption Legislation in Russia: Trends and Historical Stages

Pashentsev D. A., Dorskaya A. A.

D. A. PASHENTSEV
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
E-mail: dp-70@mail.ru

A. A. DORSKAYA
North Western branch, Russian State University of Justice, Saint Petersburg 197046, Russian Federation
E-mail: adorskaya@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.041

Abstract
The main stages of Russian anti-corruption legislation development, as well as the trends of its evolution are considered in the article.
The study is aimed at developing historical stages of anti-corruption regulation in Russia and at identifying the period when the greatest effect and performance have been achieved.
It is established in the article, by means of a chronological method, that the sequence of normative and legal acts adoption aims at combating corruption. The descriptive method makes it possible to describe the systems of state bodies established in different epochs. Their purposes are to prevent and combat bribery and other similar illegal acts. The formal-legal method is applied in the analysis of the content of the Russian normative and legal acts from the end of the XV till the XXI centuries, which are bases of anti-corruption measures. The comparative-legal method is used to trace the evolution of state-legal approaches to anti-corruption. The legal modeling method underlies the conclusion on the possibilities to implement existing experience in the modern law-making process on issues of combating corruption manifestations.
As a result of historical and legal materials application to modern anti-corruption problems in Russia it is concluded that a large number of normative and legal acts in this sphere contribute to the deterioration of their quality both in terms of legal equipment and their implementation. The negative impact on the development of anti-corruption legislation in Russia has long been played by the absence of moral condemnation of corruption behavior. At present, one way to develop a common line of anticorruption behavior is to implement international anti-corruption laws.

Keywords
anti-corruption, bribery, promises, embezzlement, decrees, special commissions.

For citation
Pashentsev D.A., Dorskaya A.A.The Development of Anti-Corruption Legislation in Russia: Trends and Historical Stages. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 42—58. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.041 (In Russ.)

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Antikorruptsionnoe pravovoe vospitanie. Ed. by D. A. Pashentsev. Moscow, 2020.

Burov M. A. Istoriya razvitiya sovremennogo zakonodatel'stva v oblasti protivodeystviya korruptsii. Issledovatel'skiy potentsial molodykh uchenykh: vzglyad v budushchee. Tula, 2015.

Chernogor N. N., Zaloilo M. V., Ivanyuk O. A. Role of Ethical and Moral Rules with a View to Ensuring the Compliance of Anti-Corruption Prohibitions, Restrictions and Requirements. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 9, pp. 130—141. DOI: 10.12737/article_599d74428a0cb8.57783439. (In Russ.)

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■ CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY

The Main Directions of Intersectoral Improvement Institute of Exemption from Criminal Liability

Pudovochkin Yu. E., Tolkachenko A. A.

Russian State University of Justice, Moscow 117418, Russian Federation
E-mail: 11081975@list.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.042

Abstract
One of the constitutional powers of the state in the sphere of countering crimes is the ability to refuse to prosecute a person who has committed a crime, if there are legal grounds for doing so. This right is regulated, among other things, by the comprehensive Institute of exemption from criminal liability, which scope has become very impressive in recent years. Despite the close attention of the legislator and the highest courts of the country to the relevant rules of law, their systematic interpretation and application still create certain difficulties. Their overcoming necessitates an in-depth and interdisciplinary analysis of this legal institution.
The purpose, objectives, research methods are: to conduct a formal legal and criminal-political analysis of criminal and criminal-procedural legislation in the part that regulates the exemption from criminal liability; to present the results of statistical analysis of law enforcement practice; to summarize and analyze the legal positions of the higher courts on the issues of exemption from liability; to give a critical assessment of the main doctrinal positions on this issue. Based on the results obtained, the article justifies specific recommendations for the comprehensive improvement of criminal law and criminal procedure grounds for exemption from criminal liability.
The results of the study allows determination of possible ways of reforming the institute of exemption from liability in terms of its inter-sectoral unification, systematization and classification, substantive and formal terminology coordination, and expanding the possibilities of its application in various, not only judicial, but also pre-trial stages of the criminal process. The paper proposes specific measures to optimize the norms of the criminal code and code of criminal procedure and their application; some special (“synthesized”) rules of practical evaluation activity for exemption from criminal liability are formulated.

Keywords
exemption from criminal liability, termination of criminal proceedings, improvement of legislation in the field of criminal justice.

For citation
Pudovochkin Yu. E., Tolkachenko A. A. The Main Directions of Intersectoral Improvement Institute of Exemption from Criminal Liability. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 59—76. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.042 (In Russ.)

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Tolkachenko A. A. To the discussion of the draft of the Federal Law on criminal misdemeanor, or how can the Plenary decision of the Russian Supreme Court of 31 October 2017 (No. 42) help the practice of applying a court fine. Zakon, 2018, no. 1, pp. 137—150. (In Russ.)

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Vladimirova O. A. Exemption from criminal liability under reconciliation with the victim. Cand. diss. thesis. Samara, 2015. 22 p. (In Russ.)

Volodina L. M. Proof and decision-making on the termination of criminal cases on nonrehabilitating grounds. Proof and decision-making in adversarial criminal proceedings. Ed. by L. N. Maslennikov. Moscow, 2017. Pp. 180—194. (In Russ.)

Voskobitova L. A. The institution and termination of criminal proceedings: analysis of investigative practice). Criminal proceedings: theory and practice. Ed. by N. A. Kolokolov. Moscow, 2015. Pp. 462—470. (In Russ.)

Zvecharovskiy I. E. Exemption from liability and punishment in Russian Criminal Law. Vestnik Universiteta imeni O. E. Kutafina (MGYuA), 2018, no. 12, pp. 81—87. (In Russ.)

Violations of Environmental Objects: Qualification and Construction of Norms of the Special Part of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation

Vinokurov V. N.

Siberian Law Institute, Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk 660131, Russian Federation
E-mail: VinokurSiblaw@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.043

Abstract
This article discusses the issues of qualifications' illegal influence on natural objects: subsoil, soil and forest.
The article uses the methods of comparative legal analysis, systematization and generalization. Thus, studying documents the author concluded that, when exposed to natural objects, such as the soil, the subsoil and the forest, the perpetrator violates the right of citizens to a favorable environment and property relations. The author does not support the position that the impact on environmental objects when transferring them to economic entities primarily causes property damage to these entities, and the validity of the qualification of such acts as theft. More true is the opinion that the impact on these objects encroaches primarily on the environment as a system, which stability and safety are conditions for human existence. This is what determines the increased danger of exposure to these objects. In order to adequately reflect the danger of crimes encroaching on objects of the natural environment, one should consider the possibility of toughening the punishment for their commission.

Keywords
environment, objects causing injury to property damage, theft.

For citation
Vinokurov V. N. Violations of Environmental Objects: Qualification and Construction of Norms of the Special Part of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 77—87. DOI: 10.12737/ jrl.2020.043 (In Russ.)

References

Aryamov A. A., Sharafutdinov E. A. Criminal Law Protection of Subsoil Use Relations. Moscow, 2015. 248 p. (In Russ.)

Bagmet A. M., Ivanov A. L. Disputable issues of qualification of illegal mining and their resolution in judicial practice. Rossiyskiy sud'ya, 2014, no. 7, pp. 18—31. (In Russ.)

Boytsov A. I. Crimes against property. SPb., 2002. 775 p. (In Russ.)

Bushueva T. A., Dagel' P. S. Object of criminal legal protection of nature. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1977, no. 8, pp. 24—44. (In Russ.)

Commentary on the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation. Ed. by N. G. Salishcheva. Moscow, 2009. 1136 p. (In Russ.)

Criminal law. Special part. Ed. by I. Ya. Kozachenko, Z. A. Neznamova, G. P. Novoselov. Moscow, 1997. 956 p. (In Russ.)

Falileev V. A., Garmaev Yu. P. Criminal liability for illegal felling of forest stands: theory and judicial practice. Rossiyskiy sud'ya, 2013, no. 5, pp. 30—33. (In Russ.)

Gordeev R. N. On exchange value as a feature of the subject of theft during illegal seizure of minerals. Actual problems of the fight against crime: questions of the theory and practice: Materialy XX international scientific-practical conference (April 20—21, 2017). Krasnoyarsk, 2017. 296 р. (In Russ.)

Khabarov A. V. Crimes against property: the effect of civil law regulation. Cand. diss. thesis. Tyumen, 1999. 25 p. (In Russ.)

Khilyuta V. V. The concept and signs of theft in criminal law. Moscow, 2016. 624 p.

Kondrashova T. V. Some issues of criminal liability for illegal business. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2009, no. 1, pp. 202—206. (In Russ.)

Lavygina I. V. Ecological crimes: criminal law and criminological aspects. Irkutsk, 2005. 159 p. (In Russ.)

Lopashenko N. A. Crimes against property: theoretical and applied research. Moscow, 2005. 408 p. (In Russ.)

Mal'tsev V. The concept of theft. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 1995, no. 4, pp. 35—37. (In Russ.)

Mazurenko E. A. Object and subject of criminal law protection of crimes against property: modern problems of qualification. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2003. 25 p. (In Russ.)

Plokhova V. Features of natural objects and their reflection in legal regulation. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2002, no. 6, pp. 28—30. (In Russ.)

Popov I. Unlicensed (unauthorized) mining of minerals as a violation of the rules for the protection and use of subsurface resources (Article 255 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation). Ugolovnoe pravo, 2012, no. 4, pp. 31—34. (In Russ.)

Popov I. V. Some contradictions of judicial investigative practice in cases of crimes of Chapter 26 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Problemy prava, 2014, no. 1, pp. 101—104. (In Russ.)

Popov I. V. Problems of differentiation of crimes in the field of economics and crimes against the environment. Vestnik Omskogo universiteta. Seriya: Pravo, 2014, no. 1, pp. 205—212. (In Russ.)

Shul'ga A. V. Theft in the conditions of development of modern information technologies and the market of innovative goods. Moscow, 2016. 727 p. (In Russ.).

Vasil'eva M. V Nature Management for Personal Use: Differentiation of Interests and Actual Problems. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seriya 11: Pravo, 2013, no. 2, pp. 24—44. (In Russ.)

Zabavko R. A. Criminal liability for environmental pollution. Irkutsk, 2009. 60 r. (In Russ.)

Zagorodnikov N. I. Object of crime and the problem of improving the criminal law. Aktual'nye problemy ugolovnogo prava. Moscow, 1988. 76 p. (In Russ.)

Zemlyukov S. V. Criminal harm: theory, legislation, practice. Dr. diss. thesis. Moscow, 1993. 39 p. (In Russ.)

Zhevlakov E. On the calculation of the amount of damage caused by illegal logging of trees and shrubs. Zakonnost', 2002, no. 10, pp. 45—47. (In Russ.)

■ ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL LAW

Regulatory Models of Interaction between the State and Non-Profit Organizations in the Defense and Security Sphere in the Russian Federation

Nikitina E. E., Kuznetsov V. I.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: const@izak.ru; adm@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.044

Abstract
The article is focused on topical issues related to elaboration and legal establishment of the model of interaction between the state and non-profit organizations. The respective analysis is made in such important sphere as the sphere of defense and security. The authors conclude that the interaction of civil society institutions and the state in this sphere can be considered as a legal principle of regulation of public relations pertaining to the defense and security of the state.
The relations between Cossack societies and the state are discussed in detail. The authors consider that the close relationship between Cossack societies and the state and municipal authorities, which is close to the relationships of power-subordination, is specific to state formations. It allows speaking about the process of governmentalization of initially social structures and the creation of a formation of the mixed nature. With regard to state-public and public-state associations, it is concluded that in order to strengthen its control in the sphere of defense and security, the state has chosen a model of full consolidation of the state body with an association which have all the markings of social institution. In this case the model of interaction can be assessed as a direct administrative participation of the state in the activities of the institution, which due to its legal nature is a mixed entity.
The authors formulate a proposal to legal consolidation of the procedure for transferring state functions to public institutions. It allows public institutions to interact more effectively with the state in any field of activity, including the sphere of defense and security on the basis of equality, independence and responsibility to achieve joint goals. According to the authors, the optimal regulation of interaction between the state and non-profit organizations is the legislative consolidation of the partner model that require the equality and organizational independence of the parties.

Keywords
public associations, non-profit organizations, national security, Cossack societies, statepublic and public-state associations, interaction.

For citation
Nikitina E. E., Kuznetsov V. I. Regulatory Models of Interaction between the State and Non-Profit Organizations in the Defense and Security Sphere in the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 88—104. DOI: 10.12737/ jrl.2020.044 (In Russ.)

References

Akopova K. K., Vasil'chikova V. M., Chikarina L. Ya. Modernization of social partnership relations between the state and non-profit organizations. Trud i sotsial'nye otnosheniya, 2011, no. 11, pp. 100—105. (In Russ.)

Chernyshov A. N. Interactions of State and NKO: Possibility, Mechanisms, Problem and the Method of Their Solution. Upravlencheskoe konsul'tirovanie, 2018, no. 10, pp. 89—98. (In Russ.)

Dement'ev V. E. The role of civil society and its institutions in ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2011. 212 p. (In Russ.)

Dulimov E. I. Formation and involution of state forms of organization of the Cossacks in the legal framework space of the Russian state. Dr. diss. thesis. Saratov, 2003. 51 p. (In Russ.)

Ebzeev B. S. The individual and the state in Russia: mutual responsibility and constitutional duties. Moscow, 2007. 384 p. (In Russ.)

Erokhin I. Yu. The modern Cossacks and the state. Vserossiyskiy zhurnal nauchnykh publikatsiy. Istoriya i arkheologiya, 2013, no. 2 (17), pp. 65—78. (In Russ.)

Fedotova Yu. G. Epistemological problems of research of citizen's participation in provision of state defense and national security in terms of the dynamics of legal regulation of social relations and the content of military threats and dangers. Sovremennoe pravo, 2016, no. 5, pp. 15—28. (In Russ.)

Gornyy M. B. Interaction between non-profit organizations and state authorities: comparative analysis of legislation. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsial'noy politiki, 2011, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 219—232. (In Russ.)

Kirichek A. I. Mechanisms of interaction between the government and civil society organizations in the cross-sectoral social partnership at the regional level. Izvestiya Dal'nevostochnogo federal'nogo universiteta. Ekonomika i upravlenie, 2017, no. 3, pp. 44—58. (In Russ.)

Lysenko V. V. The constitutional and legal bases of domestic and international activities of public associations (in the context of the experience of the Russian Federation, Republic of Moldova and Transnistria). Dr. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2016. 60 p. (In Russ.)

Nikitina E. E. Constitutional and legal bases for institutionalization of civil society in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2019. 280 p. (In Russ.)

Nosanenko G. Yu. Models of interaction of the “third sector” and the authorities (based on empirical studies). Azimut nauchnykh issledovaniy: ekonomika i upravlenie, 2017, vol. 6, no. 1 (18), pp. 259—262. (In Russ.)

Panchenko V. Yu. Legal engagement as a form of social interaction. Moscow, 2015. 232 p. (In Russ.)

Pimanova M. A. Legal status of state-public associations: constitutional and legal research. Cand. diss. thesis. Tyumen', 2007. 20 p. (In Russ.)

Pospekhov I. A. The state — public organizations in the political system of the Russian Federation. Mariyskiy yuridicheskiy vestni, 2014, iss. 11, pp. 87—91. (In Russ.)

Saraev V. G., Popov P. L., Cherenev A. A. Non-profit organizations of kozaks of the modern Russia. Gosudarstvennaya vlast' i mestnoe samoupravlenie, 2019, no. 7, pp. 10—16. (In Russ.)

Zaripov R. R. Formation of a public- state model of defense organizations in modern Russia (based on the materials of the Republic of Tatarstan). Fundamental'nye issledovaniya, 2014, no. 6-3, pp. 623—627. (In Russ.)

Penоlogical Aspects of the Conditions for the Onset of Administrative Liability

Deryuga N. N., Deryuga A. N.

N. N. DERYUGA, Far Eastern Branch, Russian State University of Justice, Khabarovsk 680014, Russian Federation
E-mail: derjuga@mail.ru

A. N. DERYUGA, Far Eastern Law Institute, Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk 680020, Russian Federation
E-mail: derjuga@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.045

Abstract
The number of administrative offenses committed in the Russian Federation remains consistently high. Traditional methods of counteraction by tightening administrative and legal sanctions bring temporary results.
The aim of the study is critical reconsideration of the norms of the general part of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation which establishes general conditions for bringing to administrative responsibility and exemption from it, suggestions for changes and additions to the relevant legislation in order to increase the implementation of the principle of fairness of administrative punishment hence its effectiveness. The author tried to draw the attention of the scientific community to the development of a new scientific direction — administrative penology, the subject of which is the effectiveness of administrative penalties. Objectives of the study is the analysis of norms of the administrative code, which sets out the general conditions of engagement and release from administrative responsibility, the relevant judicial practice and to identify problems in the law regulating surrogacy law.
The methodological basis of the research is based on the following methods: dialectics as a general scientific method of knowledge, as well as private scientific methods: comparative legal, technicallegal, formal-logical in their various combinations.
As a result of this study, changes and additions to the norms of the general part of the Russian Code of Administrative Offenses are proposed, according to the authors, which can increase their effectiveness. In particular, it is proposed to make changes to the norms, establishing a more lenient administrative punishment for guilty officials who hold office for less than a year. The author criticizes the legislative consolidation of the reduction of administrative fines in case of their prompt payment. It is proposed to establish specific criteria for assessing the insignificance of the committed administrative offense.

Keywords
administrative penology, administrative offense, administrative responsibility, administrative punishment, administrative delictology.

For citation
Deryuga N. N., Deryuga A. N. Penоlogical Aspects of the Conditions for the Onset of Administrative Liability. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 105—112. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.045 (In Russ.)

References

Deryuga A. N., Deryuga N. N. The Legal Framework of Administrative Penology: Issues of the Modern Status. Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2018, no. 2, pp. 4—14. (In Russ.)

■ PROCEDURAL LAW

Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceeding: Issues of Theory and Legislative Regulation

Dikarev I. S.

Military University, Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow 123001, Russian Federation
E-mail: iliadikarev@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.046

Abstract
Despite the fact that in law enforcement practice the rules of the Institute of criminal investigation jurisdiction find the widest application, directly in every criminal case, in the criminal procedural theory there are many issues related to the definition of the essence of the jurisdiction, the signs and rules on the basis of which it is determined continue to remain in the discussion field.
Goals and objectives of the study. The aim of the research is to develop a set of basic provisions of the theory of jurisdiction in criminal proceedings on the basis of the current legislation and criminal procedure doctrine. To achieve this goal, the author has solved a number of tasks being listed as the following: finding out what the jurisdiction is referred to — to criminal cases or crimes, and formulating the concept of jurisdiction on this basis; focusing attention of the legislator on the contradictions contained in the norms of the criminal procedure law on jurisdiction; study the signs determining the jurisdiction of criminal cases; developing an algorithm of determining the jurisdiction of criminal cases in the course of law enforcement.
The author of the study used general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, systematic approach, methods of legal interpretation and logical-legal. The dialectical method served as a methodological basis.
The researcher comes to the conclusion that only criminal cases and materials of checks of reports of crimes can be investigated by the bodies of the preliminary investigation, while the expression “jurisdiction of the crime” is incorrect. The range of circumstances determining the jurisdiction is methodologically true to be denoted by the term “signs of a criminal case”. From the system of regulations governing the investigation of criminal cases the author identifies a general rule of jurisdiction, which is formed of two features of the criminal case — subject and territorial. The author demonstrates that all other features provided by the law for the determination of the jurisdiction, in itself, are nothing more than an exception to the general rule.

Keywords
pre-trial proceedings, preliminary investigation, inquiry, jurisdiction, preliminary investigation body.

For citation
Dikarev I. S. Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceeding: Issues of Theory and Legislative Regulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 113—125. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.046 (In Russ.)

References

Aleksandrov A., Marchuk A. Jurisdiction of criminal cases. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2003, no. 10, pp. 34—36. (In Russ.)

Bashinskaya I. G. Problems of legal regulation of the institution of jurisdiction in Russian criminal proceedings. Cand. diss. thesis. Krasnodar, 2007. 21 p. (In Russ.)

Bezlepkin B. T. Handbook of investigator and investigator. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2015. 296 p. (In Russ.)

Criminal procedure course. Ed. by L. V. Golovko. Moscow, 2016. 1278 p. (In Russ.)

Criminal procedure. Ed. by N. S. Manova, Yu. V. Frantsiforov. Moscow, 2016. 368 p. (In Russ.)

Criminal procedure. Ed. by V. A. Lazareva. Moscow, 2015. 656 p. (In Russ.)

Grigor'ev V. N., Selyutin A. V. Jurisdiction in criminal proceeding (concept, grounds and procedure for determination, problems of differentiation). Moscow, 2002. 115 p. (In Russ.)

Kornukov V. M. Russian criminal procedure. Issues of special section: lecture course. Saratov, 2010. 304 p. (In Russ.)

Marfitsin P. G. New rules for determining jurisdiction: is a step forward? Problems of the theory and practice of the criminal process, prosecutor's supervision and law enforcement in light of the new Russian legislation: materials of the scientific-practical conference (Tomsk, Tomsk State University, January 29—31, 2004). Ed. by M. K. Sviridov. Tomsk, 2004. Pp. 114—120. (In Russ.)

Miftakhov R. L. Jurisdiction of criminal cases. Cand. diss. thesis. Volgograd, 2005. 19 p. (In Russ.)

Petrukhin I. L. Theoretical grounds of the criminal procedure reform in Russia. Chast' II. Moscow, 2005. 192 p. (In Russ.)

Savitskiy V. M., Larin A. M. Criminal procedure: reference dictionary. Moscow, 1999. 271 p. (In Russ.)

Scientific and practical commentary on the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation (itemized). Ed. by V. M. Lebedev, V. P. Bozh'ev. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2007. 1158 p. (In Russ.)

Sinitsyn V. A. Pre-trial criminal proceedings against prosecutors and investigators: theory and practice. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2019. 257 p. (In Russ.)

Smirnov A. V., Kalinovskiy K. B. Criminal procedure. St. Petersburg, 2005. 272 p. (In Russ.)

Strogovich M. S. The course of Soviet criminal procedure. Vol. II. Moscow, 1970. 516 p. (In Russ.)

Suprun S. V. Objective jurisdiction of the inquiry agencies in the process of prosecution an inquiry. Rossiyskiy sledovatel', 2009, no. 24, pp. 4—6. (In Russ.)

Voplenko N. N. Essays in general theory of law. Volgograd, 2009. 898 p. (In Russ.)

Yakimovich Yu. K., Pan T. D. Pre-trial proceedings according to the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation (participants in pre-trial proceedings, evidence and proof, institution of criminal proceedings, inquiry and preliminary investigation). St. Petersburg, 2003. 297 p. (In Russ.)

Zakharov N. V. The special status of the suspect (accused) as a criterion for determining the jurisdiction of criminal cases. Actual problems of the modern criminal process in Russia. Ed. By V. A. Lazareva. Samara, 2010, Pp. 365—370. (In Russ.)

Features of Evidence in Cases of Protection of Spouses Property Rights and Current Issues of Improving Legislation Ensuring Their Implementation

Ganicheva E. S.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: civil@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.047

Abstract
The article deals with the problems of spouses property relations, which are shown in the procedural activities of participants in civil proceedings in resolving disputes related to the protection of property rights. As typical examples, we consider the peculiarities of proving and justifying the legal position in cases of contesting transactions with the common property of spouses made by one of them without the consent of the second spouse, as well as in claims for the division of property. Based on the analysis of judicial practice, various approaches to the application of legal presumptions provided for by family and civil legislation are considered. Special attention is paid to situations when one of the spouses, in an effort to remove the other from the decision on the disposal of common property, can hide the objects purchased in their own name, in order to further implement them at their own discretion. Persons entering into transactions with it do not always have reliable information about the legal status of these objects, since legal opportunities to obtain such data are limited. The problems of access to information about property acquired by one of the spouses during marriage, considered in the article, negatively affect the stability of civil turnover and put the other spouse (co-owner) in an unfavorable position.

Keywords
common joint property of spouses, presumption of consent to the disposal of property acquired in marriage, transactions with objects of joint property of spouses, notarized consent to the transaction, Unified state register of civil status records, registration of rights to real estate, division of jointly acquired property.

For citation
Ganicheva E. S. Features of Evidence in Cases of Protection of Spouses Property Rights and Current Issues of Improving Legislation Ensuring Their Implementation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 126—140. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.047 (In Russ.)

References

Bonner A. T. Establishing the circumstances of civil cases. Moscow, 2000. 328 p. (In Russ.)

Conception of the development of the Russian legislation. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2010. 736 p. (In Russ.)

Eliseeva A. A. Equality of spouses in property relations: history and contemporary challenges. Aktual'nye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2017, no. 5, pp. 118—125. (In Russ.)

Fedorova O. A. Available to former spouses of the property under their joint ownership. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Pravo, 2012, iss. 1, pp. 45—53. (In Russ.)

Kostrova N. M. Theory and practice of interaction of civil procedure and family law. Rostov-on-Don, 1988. 144 p. (In Russ.)

Krylova Z. G. Property rights of spouses in the transition to market relations. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1992, no. 7, pp. 26—35. (In Russ.)

Kulagina E. V. Property relations between spouses in modern Russia. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 11: Pravo, 2008, no. 4, pp. 78—88. (In Russ.)

Mikheeva L. Yu. There is no concept of the development of family law in Russia. Zakon, 2017, no. 2, pp. 6—20. (In Russ.)

Sinitsyn S. A. Absolute and relative legal rights. general system and problems of the theory of civil law. a comparative-law study. Moscow, 2015. 568 p. (In Russ.)

■ LAND LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Limitation of Private Property Rights by Establishing Public Land Easements: Finding a Balance of Interests

Anisimov A. P., Boltanova E. S.

A. P. ANISIMOV, Volgograd Institute of Management, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Volgograd 400066, Russian Federation
Е-mail: anisimovap@mail.ru

E. S. BOLTANOVA, Law Institute, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russian Federation
Е-mail: bes2@sibmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.048

Abstract
Private property, as any subjective right, is not absolute and is subject to restrictions. A certain interest in the establishment of restrictions of rights is of great importance. Traditionally, the theory of law distinguishes between private and public interest. At the same time, the development of land legislation shows that their dichotomy is insufficient. In practice, the conflict between individuals and (or) groups of individuals, due to different interests, occurs everywhere and is quite complex, and the task of representatives of legal doctrine and the legislator to propose measures to prevent and (or) resolve the conflict.
The purpose — on the basis of the study of land law on public easements to determine the category of interest provided by them and to offer additional guarantees to achieve a balance of different interests in the land sphere.
General scientific (analysis, synthesis, generalization) and private-scientific (formal-logical, technicallegal, system) methods were used in solving research problems.
The article proves that due to the processes of urbanization and globalization, the expansion of the list of grounds for limiting the rights of private owners by establishing public easements did not entail the creation of a proportional system of human rights guarantees. In this regard, a number of measures are proposed to increase public participation in decision-making, as well as the creation of a new legal structure of “private-public” interests and legal entities expressing them, performing a number of public functions, but having their own interests, which often do not coincide with either private (interests of land owners) or public (residents of settlements) interests. These legal entities should not be empowered to make decisions restricting the rights of private owners of land.

Keywords
human rights, land, easement, property, balance of interests.

For citation
Anisimov A. P., Boltanova E. S. Limitation of Private Property Rights by Establishing Public Land Easements: Finding a Balance of Interests. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 141—152. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.048 (In Russ.)

References

Afanas'ev I. V. Easement in civil law of the Russian Federation: theory and practice of application. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2017. 27 p. (In Russ.)

Bogolyubov S. A. The Potential of Environmental Norms of the Russian Constitution. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 5, pp. 16—25. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_5_2 (In Russ.)

Boltanova E. S. Public easement for construction activities: addressing citizens constitutional rights and balancing interests. Zakon = Law, 2019, no. 2, pp. 45—55. (In Russ.)

Charkin S. A. Land legal relations as an intersectoral legal category. Moscow, 2012. 237 p. (In Russ.)

Chirkin V. E. Public and Private Interests of Legal Persons Performing Public Functions. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 1, pp. 9—16. (In Russ.)

Deryugina T. V. Civil law regulation of the easement Institute in Russia. Cand. diss. thesis. Volgograd, 2002. 29 p. (In Russ.)

Galinovskaya E. A. Influence of the Implementation of the Russian Socio-Economic Policy on Legal Regulation of Land Relations. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 3, pp. 116—126. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_3_11. (In Russ.)

Kopylov A. V. Property rights to land in the Roman and Russian pre-revolutionary and modern civil law. Moscow, 2000. 255 p. (In Russ.)

Kozlov D. V. Rural servitudes in modern Russian law. Voprosy rossijskogo i mezhdunarodnogo prava = Questions of Russian and international law, 2016, no. 9, pp. 258—268. (In Russ.)

Krasnova T. S. Several aspects of the servitude doctrine in contemporaneous Russian law. Imushchestvennye otnosheniya v Rossijskoj Federacii = Property relations in the Russian Federation, 2017, no. 3, pp. 6—18. (In Russ.)

Sinitsyn S. A. Private and Public Easements in Russian and Foreign Law. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki = Law. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2018, no. 2, pp. 26—45 (In Russ.)

Sukhanov E. A. About Civil Legal Capacity of Public Legal Entities. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 5—15. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_1_1 (In Russ.)

Problems with the Quality of the Law on Responsible Treatment of Animals and the Effectiveness of Its Application

Gorokhov D. B.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: julia7709@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.049

Abstract
Federal Law No. 498-FZ of December 27, 2018 “On Responsible Treatment of Animals and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation” is of historical significance, since neither Russia nor the USSR has ever had such a law, although many foreign countries have such acts, and the first of them appeared in the XIX century. Recognizing the significance of this event for the citizens of the country and the Russian legal system, it is impossible not to notice the shortcomings of this Law, which dictates the need for a thoughtful analysis of its quality and effectiveness of application.
The quality of the law depends on its conceptual basis, identifying the purpose and subject of legal regulation, but also on how the report was researched means and ways of its implementation, which should form a single coherent mechanism. The Institute of legislation and comparative law under the Government of the Russian Federation has been working on this scientific issue for a long time.in particular, recommendations have been prepared to assess the quality and effectiveness of the implementation of the law. Scientific developments of the Institute formed the conceptual basis of normative legal acts of the President of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation regulating the organization and monitoring of law enforcement in our country.
The article presents the results of a study of the quality of standards and the effectiveness of the Federal Law “On Responsible Treatment of Animals and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation”, conducted using analytical tools developed by legal science and accepted practice. Conceptual and other shortcomings of the new Law are identified, and proposals for its correction are formulated.

Keywords
proper treatment of animals, protection of animals from cruel treatment, quality of the law, mechanism of realization of the law, legal regime of agricultural and laboratory animals.

For citation
Gorokhov D. B. Problems with the Quality of the Law on Responsible Treatment of Animals and the Effectiveness of Its Application. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 153—171. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.049 (In Russ.)

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■ JUDICIARY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

The Role of Judicial Doctrines in the Practice of Arbitration Courts

Ibragimova Yu. E.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
E-mail: ibragimova.j.e@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.050

Abstract
The article substantiates the need to develop the concept of judicial doctrines in Russian law, which could allow, on the one hand, to describe the creative component of the law enforcement process, characterized by the borrowing and development of doctrinal provisions of legal science by judges, the presence of feedback between science and practice, and, on the other hand, to distinguish the interpretation of law from judicial lawmaking.
The purpose of the research is to reveal the principle of operation of the judicial doctrine in the practice of arbitration courts.
Using empirical and theoretical research methods, the influence of international courts on the perception of foreign judicial doctrines in domestic law enforcement practice is established, as well as the auxiliary role of judicial doctrines in filling gaps in law by courts is revealed.
As a result, judicial doctrines ensure the interconnection and mutual enrichment of legislation, law enforcement and science. References in judicial acts to judicial doctrines, as well as their actual use, will give a new impetus to research activities. At the same time, the legal principles developed by the judicial doctrine can be used in legislative activities using the mechanism for implementing judicial decisions into the legislation of the Russian Federation.

Keywords
judicial doctrine, judicial practice, law enforcement, legislative gap, arbitration courts.

For citation
Ibragimova Yu. E. The Role of Judicial Doctrines in the Practice of Arbitration Courts. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 172—185. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.050 (In Russ.)

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■ REVIEWS

Review of the Monograph “History of the Soviet Lotteries (1917—1924)” by E. Kovtun (St. Petersburg, 2020. 400 p.).  Pdf 16

Khabrieva T. Y., Tereshchenko L. K.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

■ LEGAL LIFE. CHRONICLE

To the Anniversary of I. I. Rogov, an Outstanding Kazakhstan Academic Lawyer  Pdf 16

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