Contents of issue # 5/2020

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Spatial and Legal Matrix of Modern Russia

Chernogor N. N., Emelyanov A. S.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
E-mail: chernogor72@yandex.ru; adm1@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.051

Abstract. Modern Russian society is entering a period of transformation that might take place against the backdrop of large-scale global crisis phenomena. In this situation, the spatial and legal structure of both the Russian Federation and the world as a whole is of scientific interest. It is due to the fact that the problem of the operation of law in space is particularly relevant in the context of interaction between internal and external crisis phenomena. The authors attempt to establish the dependencies that exist in this area, as well as to determine the prospects for the development of the regulatory and institutional framework for the formation of the legal space.
The research is based on the works of domestic and foreign researchers in the field of theory and history of state and law, philosophy of law, international and constitutional law. The methodological basis of the research is based on general scientific and private scientific methods, such as dialectical method, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, system approach, comparative legal and historical legal methods.
In the course of the research the concept of spatial and legal structure, normative and institutional foundations of the legal space formation are revealed. It contributes to a meaningful analysis of these phenomena, as well as an attempt to predict their development. The process of influence of foreign legal doctrines on the spatial and legal structure of modern Russia is considered.
The authors present their own vision of the transformation of the spatial and legal structure of modern Russia, which primarily affects the institutional basis for the formation of the Eurasian legal space. The modern domestic model of spatial legal structure is based on the fact that the national legal order is limited primarily by the state border. Here is even more strict adherence to this principle at the subnational level, where the administrative borders of the constituent entities and municipalities are practically impenetrable. According to the author, a necessary condition for countering possible centrifugal tendencies of the Russian state is the formation of new institutions that meet the General principles of functioning of the Russian legal order, but have a cross-border (extraterritorial) nature.

Keywords: spatial and legal structure, legal space, the effect of law in space, state border, administrative border, the effect of law in the circle of persons, legal system, law and order, administrative and territorial division, special territorial legal regimes.

For citation: Chernogor N. N., Emelyanov A. S. Spatial and Legal Matrix of Modern Russia. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 5—22. DOI: 10.12737/ jrl.2020.051 (In Russ.)

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Vlasova N. V., Gracheva S. A., Meshcheryakova M. A. Pravovoe prostranstvo i chelovek. Moscow, 2012.

Zombart V. Izbrannye raboty. Moscow, 2005.

Political and Legal Views of Classical Eurasianists on the “Division of Powers”

Nazmutdinov B. V.

National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
E-mail: bnazmutdinov@hse.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.052

Abstract. The objective of the “division of powers” theorists J. Locke and Ch.-L. Montesquieu is to prevent tyranny and concentration of power. However, for the classics of Eurasianism, the most important political and legal problem after the revolutions of 1917 and the First World War is not tyranny, but the existence of Russia as a state. The purpose of their political and legal projects is to fill the “empty” liberal democratic forms with concrete content. In this regard, the Eurasianist political theorist Nikolai Alekseev denies the idea of judicial independence. In his view, the judiciary should not be independent from the other branches of power: it is organized to embody the people's and state principles and it should not to be an indifferent arbitrator in the dispute resolution. Judges should strive to find the truth together with other participants in the process. Afterwards, Alekseev, who was impressed by the trials in the USSR during 1930s, favors the principle of judicial independence, rejecting the idea that judicial reforms in 1864 were harmful to the Russian legal system.
In return for the separation of powers, the Eurasianists advocate the idea of a balance of “demotic” and “ideocratic” powers. In Alekseev's opinion, the “demotic” power is embodied in a system of councils (“soviets”) formed on the basis of the “principle of intercession”. Then the “ideocratic” power is in the presence of a “state elite”, selected on the basis of fidelity to the “common idea” — Eurasianism. Nikolai Trubetskoy suggests the concept of “multi-parliamentary rule”: in this system party elections would be inappropriate: citizens vote not for parties, but for special organizations representing their interests in a certain sphere of public life. The most powerful of these chambers would consist of “ideologists”.
The views of Eurasianists, on the one hand, can be put in the context of the ideas of “Classical Natural Law” theorists, who depict political governance primarily in terms of goals and virtues rather than institutions and concrete organizational solutions. On the other hand, Political Eurasianism has similarities with the views of other authors traditionally considered under the “Sonderweg” ideologies. It is also in line with Soviet constitutional projects that rejected the usual concepts of the division of powers.

Keywords: division of powers, rule of law, classical Eurasianism, mixed government, history of Russian thought.

For citation: Nazmutdinov B. V. Political and Legal Views of Classical Eurasianists on the “Division of Powers”. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 23—37. DOI: 10.12737/ jrl.2020.052 (In Russ.)

References

Alekseev N. N. Note on the Judiciary. Eurasianist Chronicle. Iss. IX. Paris, 1927. Pp. 16—21. (In Russ.)

Alekseev N. N. On the Future of the State Structure in Russia. Novyy grad, 1938, no. 13, pp. 9—114. (In Russ.)

Alekseev N. N. On the Guarantee State. In Alekseev N. N. Russian Nation and State. Moscow, 1998, pp. 372—385. (In Russ.)

Alekseev N. N. On the Ways to the Future of Russia (Soviet System and its Political Opportunities). Berlin, 1927. 75 p. (In Russ.)

Alekseev N. N. Religion, Law and Morality. Paris, 1930. 106 p. (In Russ.)

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Alekseev N. N. The Ways and Fates of Marxism: From Marx and Engels to Lenin and Stalin. Berlin, 1936. 102 p. (In Russ.)

Alekseev N. N. Towards the Issue of Soviet State Structure's Reforming. Eurasianist Edition. Praga, 1929. Pp. 78—81. (In Russ.)

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Beletskiy I. Review on: Prezzolini G. Le Fascisme. Traduit d l'italien par Georges Bourgin. Paris, 1925. Eurasianist Chronicle. Iss. 7. Paris. 1927. Pp. 53—55. (In Russ.)

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Gessen S. I. Eurasianism. Sovremennye zapiski, 1925, no. 27, pp. 494—507. (In Russ.)

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Plato. Gorgias. Oxford, 2008. 224 p.

Savitskiy P. N. Allegiance of Idea. Eurasianist Edition. Book 3. Berlin, 1923. Pp. 9—17. (In Russ.)

Shakhmatov M. V. The State of Truth: Research in the History of Political Ideals in Russia. Eurasianist Edition. Book IV. Berlin, 1924. Pp. 55—80. (In Russ.)

Shatilov A. B. Eurasianism as a phenomenon of political culture: the twenties of the 20th Century. Cand. diss. St. Petersburg, 1999. 182 p. (In Russ.)

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Suvchinskiy P. P. Monarchy or the Strong Power? Eurasianist Chronicle. Iss. 9. Paris, 1927. Pp. 22—24. (In Russ.)

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To the opponents of Eurasianism (J. D. Sadovsky's Letter to the Editorial Board). Eurasianist Edition. Book III. Praga, 1923, pp. 149—174. (In Russ.)

Trubetskoy N. S. On State Regime and Form of Ruling. Eurasianist Chronicle. Paris, 1927. Iss. 7. Pp. 3—9. (In Russ.)

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■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

Constitutional Model of the Russian Political System in the Context of the Development of “Digital Society”

Postnikov A. E.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
E-mail: const@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.053

Abstract. The modern model of the Russian political system is characterized by the absence of its detailed constitutional and legal regulation. At the same time, it has a number of stable constitutional and legal characteristics that hold sway at the various stages of the country's political and socio-economic development. These characteristics predetermine the essence of the political system as the system based on the dominance of hierarchical principles governing the interaction of the state with political parties and other actors of the political system. The institute of the President of the Russian Federation, actually being the core of the political system, in practice determines the most significant relationships between its main elements. At the same time, the problem of building a balanced relationship between the state and political parties and other civil society institutions continues to be relevant.
The impact of the new digital environment on the political system of Russian society is fraught with high dynamism, depth and versatility. There are both positive and negative aspects of such development in this direction from the standpoint of the implementation of democratic values. Responding to the widespread use of digital technologies in social practice and public administration, the legal system of our country is still developing unevenly. The introduction of a number of serious prohibitions and restrictions in the interests of ensuring the security of the state has become the first retaliation of the state to the widespread use of the Internet in all spheres of public life. At the same time, the strategy for further development of a democratic legal state should also include the search for legislative solutions providing that the interests of individuals and civil society institutions — when dealing with the state in the digital sphere — are also taken into account and protected. In this regard it is also important to develop additional procedural mechanisms. As one of the measures in this direction, it is proposed to discuss the creation of bodies based on representation from the expert community, civil society institutions and the state that could perform the mediation functions in public dispute resolution concerning the information sphere.

Keywords: constitution, political system, human rights, civil society institutions, digital society, information and communication technologies, e-democracy.

For citation: Postnikov A. E. Constitutional Model of the Russian Political System in the Context of the Development of “Digital Society”. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 38—49. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.053 (In Russ.)

References

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Bondar N. S. Information and Digital Space in the Constitutional Dimension: From the Practice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 25—42. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.2. (In Russ.)

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Pavlushkin A. V., Postnikov A. E. Legal Mechanism of Distance Electronic Voting (Feasible Model Analysis). Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2009, no. 11, pp. 5—13. (In Russ.)

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Postnikov A. E. Constitutional Law Foundations of Interaction of Political Parties and State. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 5, pp. 5—12. (In Russ.)

Razvitie politicheskikh sistem v sovremennom mire. Moscow, 1981.

Tereshchenko L. K. Razvitie informatsionnogo i telekommunikatsionnogo zakonodatel'stva. Nauchnye kontseptsii razvitiya rossiyskogo zakonodatel'stva. Moscow, 2015.

Topornin B. N. Sovetskaya politicheskaya sistema. Moscow, 1975.

Vasil'ev V. I. “Vertikal'” i “gorizontal'”. Pravovye voprosy organizatsii vlasti. Moscow, 2006.

Vasil'eva S. V. Konstitutsionno-pravovoy status politicheskoy oppozitsii. Moscow, 2010.

On the Legal Possibility of Raising the Retirement Age: Analysis of Decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation

Cherepanov V. A.

Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol 355017, Russian Federation
E-mail: sigma45@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.054

Abstract. The wave of rallies that swept across the country due to an increase in the retirement age, repeated and unsuccessful attempts to initiate an all-Russian referendum on this issue, a negative public mood that arose in connection with its conduct, a decrease in trust in state power suggests that the reform of the pension has led to the emergence of certain social contradictions that form a certain social problem that needs to be resolved.
The purpose of the study is to formulate and analyze on the basis the problem of a scientific understanding of the judicial practice of the Constitutional Court related to the consideration of such contradictions in the field of social protection of the population.
The methodological basis of this scientific work was dialectical, systemic, comparative-legal, normative and other methods of cognition.
The author, based on the analysis of the Constitutional Court's decisions, consideres the question of the legal possibility of reducing the level of social protection of Russian citizens and formulated a provision on the permissible limits of changes in legal regulation in the social sphere, which is as follows: “The level of social protection achieved in the Russian Federation cannot be reduced even if there is a discretionary power of the legislator to change the legal regulation in the social sphere”. Such restrictions are possible in a state of emergency in order to ensure the safety of citizens and protect the constitutional order in accordance with federal constitutional law may be established, however, at the present stage of development of the Russian state, such force majeure circumstances, according to the author, have not be observed. On this basis, a constitutional-legal analysis of the Constitutional Court's decision, which refused to consider on the merits of the group appeal of the State Duma deputies on the verification of the pension reform's constitutionality, has been made and the conclusion that such a court decision was unreasonable has been drawn.

Keywords: pension reform, restrictions of rights and freedoms of man and citizen, the principle of maintaining citizens' confidence in the law and the actions of the state, inadmissibility of reducing the level of social protection of citizens, legal nihilism.

For citation: Cherepanov V. A. On the Legal Possibility of Raising the Retirement Age: Analysis of Decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 50—58. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.054 (In Russ.)

References

Arapov N. A. The Principle of Maintaining Citizens' Confidence in the Law and Actions of the State in Russian Constitutional Law and Justice. Cand. diss. St. Petersburg, 2015. 277 p. (In Russ.)

Gadzhiev G. A. Ontology of Law (a Critical Study of the Legal Concept of Reality). Moscow, 2014. 320 p. (In Russ.)

Lazarev L. V. Legal Positions of the Constitutional Court of Russia. Moscow, 2003. 528 p. (In Russ.)

Zor'kin V. D. Constitutional and legal development of Russia. Moscow, 2011. 448 p. (In Russ.)

Zor'kin V. D. The letter and spirit of the Constitution. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2018, October 10, no. 7689 (226), pp. 1, 5. (In Russ.)

■ CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. ENTREPRENEURIAL LAW

The Legal Category of “Entrepreneurial Activity”: The Legal Definition and the Reality

Shuvalov I. I.

VEB.RF, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
E-mail: info@veb.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.055

Abstract. Currently, the legal definition of entrepreneurial activity is disclosed through such categories as performance of works, provision of services, and production of products. At the same time, the modern world is characterized by scientific and technological progress, which is accompanied by the appearance of new types of objects of law, which in the near future will be actively involved in civil circulation.
The article attempts to formulate a new theoretical definition of entrepreneurial activity with the possibility of its further implementation in civil legislation, taking into account such innovations as cryptocurrency, the development of robotics, etc. The author considers the legislative and doctrinal features of business activity, noting the imperfection of some of them, compares the category of business activity with the general concept of economic activity and other types used in the law and doctrine.

Keywords: concept and signs of business activity, performance of works, rendering of services, production of products, illegal business activity.

For citation: Shuvalov I. I. The Legal Category of “Entrepreneurial Activity”: The Legal Definition and the Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 59—65. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.055 (In Russ.)

References

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Entrepreneurial Law of Russia. Ed. by V. S. Belykh. Moscow, 2008. (In Russ.)

Entrepreneurial Law of Russian Federation. Ed. by E. P. Gubin, P. G. Lakhno. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2017. (In Russ.)

Ershova I. V. Economic Activities: the Concept and its Interrelation with Related Categories. Lex Russica, 2016, no. 9, pp. 46—61. (In Russ.)

Ershova I. V. Ponyatie predprinimatel'skoy deyatel'nosti v teorii i sudebnoy praktike. Lex Russica, 2014, no. 2, pp. 160—167.

Gushchin V. V., Dmitriev Yu. A. Russian Entrepreneurial Law. Moscow, 2005. (In Russ.)

Kurbatov A. Ya. Obespechenie balansa chastnykh i publichnykh interesov — osnovnaya zadacha prava na sovremennom etape. Khozyaystvo i pravo, 2001, no. 6.

Mitsyk G. Yu. Regulatory, Doctrinal and Law Enforcement Features of Entrepreneurial Activity. Pravo i ekonomika, 2017, no. 7, pp. 5—11. (In Russ.)

Predprinimatel'skoe pravo: sovremennyy vzglyad. Ed. By S. A. Karelina, P. G. Lakhno, I. S. Shitkina. Moscow, 2019.

Rubtsova N. V., Golyshev M. V. Opredelenie predprinimatel'skoy deyatel'nosti v doktrine i sovremennom rossiyskom zakonodatel'stve. Vestnik Sibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta putey soobshcheniya, 2014, no. 31, pp. 95—98.

Russian Entrepreneurial Law. Ed. by I. V. Ershova, G. D. Otnyukova. Moscow, 2011. (In Russ.)

Timoshenko I. V., Melkumyants A. V. Khozyaystvennoe pravo. Rostov-on-Don, 2008.

Vorontsov S. G. Legal Indicia of Entrepreneurship: Terminological Problems. Vestnik Permskogo Universiteta. Juridicheskie Nauki = Perm University Herald, Juridical Sciences, 2016, no. 34, pp. 402—412. (In Russ.)

Zhilinskiy S. E. Entrepreneurial Law. Moscow, 2000. (In Russ.)

The Content and Instruments of the Corporate Control in Contemporary Russian Law

Vildanova M. M.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: civil@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.056

Abstract. The issue of corporate control is of vivid to Russian legal science since there are disputes about its legal nature. Currently, there is no statutory definition of corporate control. At that, the term can be defined as the corporate control exercised by shareholders of corporations when interacting among themselves and with the corporation. It can also be defined as the control that ensures the rights of shareholders/participants by means of corporate governance and internal procedures of a commercial legal entity.
The article examines the features of the corporate control in joint-stock and limited liability companies, holdings and groups and the issues of cross-participation in legal entities. It also provides examples of the court practice on the reestablishment of corporate control in such corporations. The author describes the external corporate control to examine the means, which enable the shareholders to determine the decisions taken by the companies. The author considers the following as the internal corporate control instruments: the supervision of the Board of Directors of the management of legal entity, the risk management system, internal control and internal audit, and others.
The article concludes that external corporate control is impossible without internal control that derives from the first one and penetrates in all aspects of the corporate activities. In addition, the article suggests certain changes to the existing regulation and to establish a system of corporate control bodies to eliminate duplication of its components.

Keywords: corporate control, restoration of corporate control, instruments for corporate control, internal control, internal audit, risk management system, disclosure of information.

For citation: Vildanova M. M. The Content and Instruments of the Corporate Control in Contemporary Russian Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 66—77. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.056 (In Russ.)

References

Shitkina I. S. Legal regulation of economic dependence. Prilozhenie “Khozyaystvo i pravo”, 2017, no. 6, pp. 3—48. (In Russ.)

Zinchenko S. A. Corporate relations in the civil legislation of Russia under reform. Grazhdanskoe pravo, 2014, no. 4, pp. 8—12. (In Russ.)

Policyholder's Pre-Contractual Information Duty (“Duty of Disclosure”): Models in European Insurance Contract Law and Prospects for Russia

Kratenko M. V.

Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russian Federation
E-mail: maxkrat@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.057

Abstract. The subject of the study is the policyholder's duty to disclose to the insurer the circumstances of risk (“duty of disclosure”). The model of information duty of the policyholder, fixed in article 944 of Civil Code of Russian Federation is analyzed, a number of gaps are revealed: deficiency of criteria of the information subject to disclosure; lack of any penalties for the policyholder in case of careless violation of the obligation; lack of differential system of sanctions depending on the degree of policyholder's fault and importance of undisclosed information for the insurer.
Based on the study of case law, it is concluded that the courts interpret the provisions of article 944 of Civil Code with a deviation from their literal meaning. When resolving relevant disputes over the invalidity of the insurance contract, the courts take into account the importance of undisclosed information for the insurer (it would have concluded the contract if this information was available), as well as the connection of undisclosed information with the occurrence of the insured event.
A comparative analysis of insurance legislation of the Russian Federation and individual EU states (Germany, UK) in terms of regulation of the policyholder's information duty. More detailed regulation of this subject-matter in the foreign insurance law is noted. When comparing the Concept of the reform of Chapter 48 “Insurance” of the Civil Code with foreign codifications of insurance law, the Principles of European Contract Insurance Law (PEICL), it is concluded that the authors of concept take into account the current trends in the development of the institute “duty of disclosure”, but more detailed study of provisions of the article 944 of the Civil Code is necessary. The author also questions the possible differentiated regulation of the information duty in consumer and non-consumer insurance contracts, following the example of the UK legislation.

Keywords: utmost good faith, information duty, assessment of risk probability, disclosure of circumstances, invalidity of insurance contract, proportionality of sanctions.

For citation: Kratenko M. V. Policyholder's Pre-Contractual Information Duty (“Duty of Disclosure”): Models in European Insurance Contract Law and Prospects for Russia. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 78—93. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.057 (In Russ.)

References

Arkhipova A. G. The Doctrine of uberrima fide and its application in Russian insurance law. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2015, no. 4, pp. 7—35. (In Russ.)

Clarke M. English insurance contract law. 2016. Available at: https://www.coursehero.com/ file/22855008/English-Insurance-Contract-Law (accessed 20.05.2019).

Cousy H. About sanctions and the hybrid nature of modern insurance contract law. Erasmus Law Review, 2012, vol. 5, iss. 2.

Dyadyun K. V. The Problems of Interpretation and Application of “Guilty Knowledge” Criterion at Murders Qualification. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 5, pp. 86—95. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_5_9. (In Russ.)

Erdelevskiy A. The premeditation in Civil law (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”). (In Russ.) Korneeva O. V., Lysenko T. I., Tanaga A. N. et al. Commentary to the Chapter 48 “Insurance” of Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Part two) of 26 January 1996 No. 14-FZ (article-byarticle) (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”). (In Russ.)

Luik O.-J. The application of principles of European insurance contract law to policyholders of the Baltic States: A measure for the protection of policyholders. Available at: https://dspace. ut.ee/bitstream/handle/10062/52132/luik_olavi_jyri.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

■ PROCEDURAL LAW

Class Action Novels

Maleshin D. Ya.

Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199106, Russian Federation
E-mail: Dmitry.maleshin@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.058

Abstract. The amendments to the Civil Procedural Code, Arbitration Procedural Code and the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure concerning class action lawsuits adopted in 2019 are a longawaited development in the reform of civil procedure. Their adoption is one of the key moments in the development of modern Russian civil procedure.
The purpose of this work is to analyze the novels, compare them with the previous Russian legislation, determine the advantages and disadvantages, as well as correlate them with foreign analogues.
Procedural novels establish an original model of group production. A class action can be filed by either an individual or a legal entity. In other words, both private and organizational class actions are allowed. In addition, there are no restrictions on the scope of a class action lawsuit. This model differs significantly from its European counterparts, where certain types of class actions are allowed, and there are significant restrictions on the scope of application of class actions. The Russian Institute can be described as a radical model of class action for continental law countries.

Keywords: civil procedure, class action lawsuit, protection of an indefinite circle of persons, claim, Civil procedural code.

For citation: Maleshin D. Ya. Class Action Novels. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 94—103. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.058 (In Russ.)

References

Abolonin G. O. Class Actions in the Theory of Civil Procedural Law. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2015, no. 2, pp. 228—248. (In Russ.)

Abolonin G. O. Civil Procedure Law of USA. Moscow, 2010. (In Russ.)

Abolonin G. O. The Practical Application of Class Actions in Some Countries. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2015, no. 4, pp. 207—260. (In Russ.)

Baranov S. Yu. Class Actions in Civil And Administrative Proceedings of the Russian Federation. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2016, no. 1, pp. 78—88. (In Russ.)

Concept of Single Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2015. (In Russ.)

Kolesov P. P. Class Actions in the USA. Moscow, 2004.

Maleshin D. Y. Rossiyskaya model' gruppovogo iska. Vestnik Vysshego arbitrazhnogo suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2010, no. 4, pp. 70—87.

Maleshin D. Y. Russian Civil Procedure: Common Law, Civil Law or a Mix? Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2010, no. 12, pp. 73—86. (In Russ.)

Put' k zakonu (iskhodnye dokumenty, poyasnitel'nye zapiski, materialy konferentsiy, varianty proekta GPK, novyy GPK RF). Ed. by M. K. Treushnikov. Moscow, 2004.

Reshetnikova I. V. Osobennosti arbitrazhnogo proizvodstva. Ed. by I. V. Reshetnikova. Moscow, 2019.

Reshetnikova I. V. Razmyshlyaya o sudoproizvodstve. Izbrannoe. Moscow, 2019.

Schramm H.-J. Legal Analysis of the Diesel Scandal in Germanyand the USA — an Educational Play on Consumer Protection. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2018, no. 11, pp. 159—175. (In Russ.)

Shandurskiy D. I. Proceedings Features of Representative Class Actions. Rossiyskoe pravosudie, 2018, no. 3, pp. 21—34. (In Russ.)

Strel'tsova E. G. Privatizatsiya pravosudiya. Moscow, 2019.

Tumanov D. A. About Class Actions in the Concept of the United Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2015, no. 4, pp. 63—83. (In Russ.)

Voronov A. F. The collective administrative action: the practice of military courts. Voennoe pravo, 2018, no. 2, pp. 133—138. (In Russ.)

Judicial Conciliation in Civil Cases

Dolova M. O., Bagryanskaya P. D.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: civil@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.059

Abstract. Federal Law No. 197-FZ of 26 July 2019 has introduced the institution of judicial conciliation into Russian procedural law. This fact actualizes the research of alternative dispute resolution methods, which are closest to court proceedings in state courts.
In this regard, the article uses general scientific methods (comparison, analysis and synthesis, system analysis method) and methods of legal research (comparative law method, formal legal method, interpretation methods of legal norms) to analyze various integrative models of conciliation procedures and civil procedure implemented in some foreign countries (Germany, France, USA, China, South Korea, Belarus, Kazakhstan), In particular, the advantages and disadvantages of the after-reform legislation were identified.
To this date, the approved list of court conciliators does not correlate in any way with the number of courts of general jurisdiction and commercial courts. Therefore, the authors conclude that on such a scale the new procedural institute will not affect the current situation in the Russian judicial system in any way but will not entail serious budget expenditures. It has been founded that the financing of court conciliators' activities entirely from the federal budget, the funds of which could have been used to increase the number of judges, to provide material and technical support for the activities of courts, is not in line with the tasks of developing conciliation procedures, which, one way or another, are designed to relieve the judicial system and reduce budget expenditures. Such approach is justified as a mean to familiarize citizens and organizations with the benefits of reconciliation, to further promote conciliation procedures, both judicial and non-judicial.

Keywords: judicial conciliation, alternative dispute resolution, civil procedure, commercial procedure.

For citation: Dolova M.O., Bagryanskaya P.D.Judicial Conciliation in Civil Cases. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 104—119. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.059 (In Russ.)

References

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Abolonin V. O. In search of the Russian model of judicial mediation. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2011, no. 5, pp. 120—127. (In Russ.)

Abolonin V. O. Judicial Mediation: Theory, Practice, Prospects. Moscow, 2014. Book 6. 408 p. (In Russ.)

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Avkhadeev V. R., Astashova V. S., Andrichenko L. V. et al. Agreement as a Legal Value. Moscow, 2018. 381 p. (In Russ.)

Bel'skaya I. A. Reconciliation of the Parties is the Best Result of Dispute Resolution. Vestnik Vysshego khozyaystvennogo suda Respubliki Belarus', 2011, no. 11, pp. 58—60. (In Russ.)

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Borisova E. A. Judicial Conciliation: Who Is Guilty and What To Do? Rossiyskiy sud'ya, 2019, no. 9, pp. 20—23. (In Russ.)

Borisova E. A. Russian Mediation: the Concept of Development. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2011, no. 1, pp. 67—68. (In Russ.)

Commentary on the Federal Law “On Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedure involving a Mediator (Mediation Procedure)”. Ed. by S. K. Zagaynova, V. V. Yarkov. Moscow, 2012. 272 p. (In Russ.)

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Galanter M. Justice in Many Rooms: Courts, Private Ordering, and Indigenous Law. The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 1981, vol. 13, iss. 19, pp. 1—47.

Goals of Civil Justice and Civil Procedure in Contemporary Judicial Systems. Ed. by A. Uzelac. 2014. 263 p.

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Nolan-Haley J. Mediation: The “New Arbitration”. Harvard Negotiation Law Review, Forthcoming; Fordham Law Legal Studies Research, 2012, no. 17, pp. 1—95.

Nosyreva E. I. Alternative dispute resolution of civil cases in the USA. Voronezh, 2001. 362 p. (In Russ.)

Nosyreva E. I. Alternative dispute resolution of civil cases in the USA. Cand. diss. thesis. Voronezh, 2001. 65 p. (In Russ.)

Papulova Z. A. Mediation and Arbitration as Part of Modern Practical Jurisprudence in the USA (on Example of the Court of Common Pleas in Manhattan New York). Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2017, no. 10, pp. 48—51. (In Russ.)

Prescott J. J., Kathryn E., Spier A. Comprehensive Theory of Civil Settlement. NYU Law Review, 2016, April, pp. 59—143.

Rozhkova M. A., Eliseev N. G., Skvortsov O. Yu. Contract law: agreements on jurisdiction, international jurisdiction, conciliation procedure, arbitration and settlement agreements. Ed. by M. A. Rozhkova. Moscow, 2008. 528 p. (In Russ.)

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Zagaynova S. K. Improvement of the institute of conciliation in the civil procedure. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2019, no. 7, pp. 24—28. (In Russ.)

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On the Content of the Concept of “Civilized Procedure”

Zagidullin M. R.

Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russian Federation
E-mail: zagidullin.mr@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.060

Abstract. The article analyzes the content of the concept of “civilized procedure”. It is noted that although legal science has been discussing the content of the concept of civilized procedure for a long time, events have recently occurred in legal reality (the adoption of the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure, the unification of procedural legislation, the reform of arbitration courts, and so on), forcing a new look at this issue. The concept of “civilized procedure” is still not committed in legal acts, but is used in educational and scientific literature, and even in law enforcement practice. The goals and objectives of the research are to reveal and update the main points of view regarding the content of this concept, including the reference to civil procedure of arbitration, administrative proceedings, enforcement proceedings, notaries, mediation and pre-trial settlement procedures.
Methods: analysis (including logical and system analysis), comparison, analogy, normative, intersectoral, etc.
It is reasonable to join the position of the broadest interpretation of this concept, according to which the civil procedure should include: 1) judicial civilized procedure: civil procedure, arbitration, administrative proceedings; 2) non-judicial civilized procedure: notary, enforcement proceedings, mediation, pre-trial settlement of conflicts. The author argued that the nature of the current reform of arbitration proceedings, including more detailed regulation of arbitration proceedings by the legislator, limiting the number of arbitration courts and their state accreditation, the development of the institute of procedural control and assistance from state courts, the expansion of the list of arbitration cases and the inclusion of disputes in the field of tenders makes arbitration proceedings closer to the judicial civilized procedure and creates prerequisites for the inclusion of arbitration courts under a permanent arbitration institution in the judicial system of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: the concept of civilized procedure, civil procedure, arbitration, administrative proceedings.

For citation: Zagidullin M. R. On the Content of the Concept of “Civilized Procedure”. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 120—130. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.060 (In Russ.)

References

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■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW

Dynamics of Changes in the Structure of Intersystem Legal Entities in the XIX Century

Nefedov B. I.

Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow 119454, Russian Federation
E-mail: boris-nefedov@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.061

Abstract. The article examines the stages of structural change of intersystem legal entities created by states in the 19th century in order to regulate various types of cross-border social relations.
Purpose: to determine the general dynamics of the formation and development of the structure of intersystem entities in the practice of states in the 19th century and stress the features of each of its stages.
The methodological basis of the study was composed of general scientific and special methods of enquiry, including the historical method, methods of formal logic, analysis, synthesis, as well as the systemic, comparative legal and interpretation methods.
Since the 19th century to regulate certain types of cross-border social relations states have been forming intersystem entities based on their own national law. In content, such entities are individual, but in the process of the formation of their structural elements it's permissible, somewhat conventionally, to single out several common stages of their formation and development. During the research three basic stages of the structural change of such entities in the 19th century were pointed out. Initially, foreign law was allowed to regulate cross-border relations. Then the states begin the process of mutually elaborating unified approaches to the regulation of the corresponding cross-border relations, and the respective intersystem entities receive a legal component. At the next stage, international legal acts appear aimed at regulating cross-border social relations but developed and adopted by new subjects of international law — international intergovernmental organizations.

Keywords: cross-border relations, intersystem legal entity, the structure of the intersystem legal entities, private international law.

For citation: Nefedov B. I. Dynamics of Changes in the Structure of Intersystem Legal Entities in the XIX Century. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 131—147. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.061 (In Russ.)

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The Role of the EAEU Common Values in the Formation and Development of the Integration Association's Law

Chayka K. L.

Court of the Eurasian Economic Union, Minsk 220006, Republic of Belarus
E-mail: Chayka@courteurasian.org

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.062

Abstract. The value component is an integral part of the integration project, allowing the supranational entity to set not only economic goals, but also to ensure respect for human rights and freedoms, categories of political and moral order, and the diversity of national cultures within its functioning. The concept of “value” has many meanings, and it can be considered in a philosophical and moral-ethical sense. In relation to the Eurasian integration project, the author considers it necessary to formulate a definition of legal values and relate it to the category “principles of law”.
The purpose of this article is to establish the existence of a value component in the law of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and to see its influence on the practice of the EAEU Court. The analysis of the values of the Eurasian economic project is inextricably linked with the understanding of the principles of its functioning. The author aims to identify the role that values can play in the practice of the EAEU court, and through it in the development of the EAEU law.
Using the method of comparative analysis of the Russian constitutional law and the EU law allows us to come to the conclusion that values, being basically a doctrinal category, can become an instrument of current law and be used to update legal norms and fill existing gaps in them.
According to the study the author comes to the conclusion that an appeal to values, and, through them, to the purposes and principles of the Eurasian Economic Union has a great potential for judicial interpretation, and implementation entrusted to the Court the task of ensuring uniform application of the EAEU law, its organs and member-states.

Keywords: Eurasian integration, EAEU Court, constitutional justice, European Union, protection of basic human rights, interpretation of law.

For citation: Chayka K. L. The Role of the EAEU Common Values in the Formation and Development of the Integration Association's Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 148—157. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.062 (In Russ.)

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■ SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF COUNTERING CORRUPTION

Prospects for the Development of Russian Anti-Corruption Legislation

Kozlov T. L.

Crimean Law Institute (branch), University of the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation
E-mail: t-kozlov@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.063

Abstract. The article deals with the factors that create stable prerequisites for the systematization of legislation in the field of anti-corruption, analyzing the problems of legal regulation in this sphere and law enforcement of anti-corruption norms.
The aim of the research is to form ideas about the forms and content of changes in anti-corruption legislation, which is achieved through the solution of a number of tasks. In particular, the factors that impede the effective regulation of anti-corruption issues are examined; problems of regulatory regulation of certain areas of corruption prevention based on the analysis of legal norms and practice of their application are identified; formulated proposals on the prospects for the development of legislation against corruption.
In this research, general scientific and private scientific methods of cognition of social and legal phenomena were applied: systemic and structural-functional. The identification of regulatory and enforcement problems, the development of proposals for improving legal regulation was carried out using regulatory and hermeneutical methods.
As a result of the research, a number of author's conclusions are proposed, the essence of which boils down to the optimization of legal regulation, the creation of effective, transparent, understandable for the law-enforcer fundamentals of anti-corruption.

Keywords: counteraction to corruption, anti-corruption legislation, systematization, law enforcement practice.

For citation: Kozlov T. L. Prospects for the Development of Russian Anti-Corruption Legislation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 158—166. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.063 (In Russ.)

References

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Khabrieva T. Y. Corruption and Law: Doctrinal Approaches to Problem Statement. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2012, no. 6, pp. 5—17. DOI: 10.12737/22727 (In Russ.)

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■ LEGAL LIFE. CHRONICLE

To the Memory of O. N. Sadikov  Pdf 16

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