V. V. LAZAREV
chief research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor, honored scientist of the Russian Federation
22/24, Bolshoy Kharitonievskiy lane, Moscow, Russia, 107078
The article raises the question of attribution of legal science to legal activity (identification of relevant features in the light of legislation and philosophical categories of law) and, accordingly, the applicability to it of what characterizes the risks.
The author shows the nature of risk, its connection with the occurrence of negative consequences in decision-making under uncertainty and alternative. But the aim is to justify the fact that in legal science a risk has its own characteristics, that it may not meet some general characteristics of the risks at all.
In methodological terms the omission of most definitions of risk is, from the author’s point of view, ignoring the relationship of the subject of action and the predicted consequences, when psychological characteristics become decisive. In science uncertainty is sometimes not only not removed in the end, but even multiplied. Dialectics is such that any result in science gives a certain certainty in the search for truth. In this sense the risk always has a positive component. For science it is important to give priority to its internal epistemological risks (risk in choosing the appropriate methodology, risk of being carried away by the unilateral exaltation of some component of the subject or process, ignore the integrative properties, etc.).
The result of the study proposes a definition of risk as the commission of action under the threat of adverse effects (the threat that the results will not justify the costs, will not approve the values that are expected). In science the accumulation of uncertainties clinging to each other is considered by the author as a positive moment, leading eventually to the novelty of conclusions and recommendations. Drawing attention to the division of risks according to various criteria the author believes it is necessary to hold the all-Russian forum with assessments of the general state of legal science and its risks, taking into account the latest problems of correlation between virtual and real law.
Keywords: classification of Sciences, the science of law as a legal activity, the concept and types of risks, the humanitarian aspect of the risks in legal science, the risks of legal scholars, internal and external circumstances risky activities in science.
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V. D. MAZAEV
professor at the Department of public law disciplines of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, doctor of legal sciences, professor
20, Myasnitskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 101000
The 25th anniversary of the Constitution of the Russian Federation led to the formulation of questions about the results of the development of Russian society, about a possible constitutional reform. A certain deviation of the 1993 constitutional model from the realities of today is recognized. The purpose of this work is to assess a number of aspects of the creation of the draft Constitution of Russia, the relationship with the current constitutional model, identify its positive results and implementation problems.
Analysis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation in 1993 is carried out using the methods of dialectics, historical analysis and comparative jurisprudence. For a more substantive analysis of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation the comparison with the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1918 is used; as objects of analysis of the constitutional model of 1993 separate constitutional principles of the economic system are used (first of all, the principle of supporting competition).
The peculiarity of the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993 was that it consolidated the draft of the concept model of liberal-democratic civilizational development that was fundamentally new for Russia. This constitutional project is characterized by its programmatic nature and elements of myth-making. Elements of the transition period in the formation of a modern legal market economy predetermine our development. The constitutional model of a market economy is carried out with deviations from the principles of a market economy (primarily supporting competition). In turn, this situation affects democratic institutions of political competition.
The revision of the Constitution of the Russian Federation does not make sense, since no request has been formulated for changing the paradigm of democratic market development. Separate, “pointed” changes to the Constitution of the Russian Federation are possible, but a number of problems, for example, the imbalance of state authority over the executive branch can be solved within the constitutional powers of the Russian Parliament and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. The paper proposes a number of constitutional legal measures to ensure the constitutional content of the principle of competition support.
Keywords: constitution, economic model, development paradigm, competition, monopolism.
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E. E. NIKITINA, V. A. SELEZNEV
E. E. NIKITINA, leading research fellow of the Department of constitutional law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
V. A. SELEZNEV, senior research fellow of the Department of administrative law and procedure of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of economic sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
The popular sovereignty serves as a statehood of Russia. Its realization is effected through different legal forms. An important aspect of popular sovereignty is the right of citizens to participate in the management of state affairs, including direct forms of such participation. The current Russian legislation does not provide sufficient legal forms for the exercising of this right and the existing forms increasingly limit the constitutional subject-matter of human rights and freedoms. This also pertains to freedom of assembly. The amendment of legislation on public assemblies is mostly aimed at excessive itemization of the procedure for the preparation and conduct of public events, which often leads to additional restrictions on the freedom of assembly. The authors identify several groups of restrictions on freedom of assembly in the modern Russian legislation: expansion of the subject of regulation of the mentioned legislation; detailed regulation of the organization and conduction of public events; strengthening responsibility for violating any, including formal, requirements and multiplication of rules with uncertain content. The regulation of the procedure of notification, the procedure of withdrawal of notifications, organizational alignment and ensuring safe conditions, conflict resolution, the establishment of conciliation commissions, etc. — all these procedural aspects cannot be improved in perpetuity. Any, even formal violation of the established rules entails administrative responsibility. But this poses the question of correlation of the current regulation with Article 18 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation which provides that the rights and freedoms of man and citizen shall be exercised directly. This article is devoted to the study of trends in modern legislation on freedom of assembly. The authors have concluded that there is the excessive restriction of this right and justify the need to comply any measures of administrative responsibility with the principle of proportionality.
Keywords: constitutional rights, restriction of constitutional rights, administrative responsibility, freedom of assembly, marches, meetings, demonstrations and pickets.
Agapov A. B. Publichnoe prinuzhdenie ili obshchestvennaya sanatsiya... [Public coercion or social sanitation...]. Administrativnoe i munitsipalnoe pravo, 2013, no. 7, pp. 743—752.
Agapov A. B. Yurisdiktsionnye polnomochiya publichnykh organov i organizatsiy [Jurisdictional Powers of Public Bodies and Organizations]. Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2017, no. 9, pp. 24—29.
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Khramova T. M. Ogranicheniya konstitutsionnoy svobody sobraniy: sravnitelno-pravovoy analiz [Limitations of constitutional freedom of Assembly: a comparative legal analysis]. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2015.
Kolmakov S. Yu. Mezhdunarodnye standarty svobody sobraniy [International standarts of freedom of assembly]. Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta. Seriya “Ekonomika i pravo”, 2017, vol. 27, iss. 6, pp. 84—92.
Kondrashev A. A. Svoboda sobraniy v Rossii: sistemnye defekty zakonodatelstva i politikopravovaya praktika [Freedom of assembly in Russia: system defects of law and political and legal practices]. Sravnitelnoe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2017, no. 6, pp. 24—44.
Lipinskiy D. A., Musatkina A. A. Voprosy alternativnykh administrativno-pravovykh sanktsiy v resheniyakh Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Issues of administrative and legal sanctions in the decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation]. Administrativnoe i munitsipalnoe pravo, 2017, no. 7, pp. 1—16.
Salenko A. V. Svoboda mirnykh sobraniy i deti: zakonodatelstvo i opyt Rossii i Germanii [Freedom of peaceful assembly and children: law and practice of Russia and Germany]. Nauchnyy ezhegodnik Instituta filosofii i prava Uralskogo otdeleniya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 2018, vol. 18, iss. 1, pp. 79—93.
Salenko A. V. Svoboda mirnykh sobraniy v Rossiyskoy Federatsii: neskolko tezisov ob aktualnykh problemakh [Freedom of Peaceful Assembly in the Russian Federation: Some Head-Notes and Critical Issues]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 118—127.
Shilkin A. M. Problemy primeneniya zakonodatelstva o mitingakh, shestviyakh, demonstratsiyakh i piketirovanii [Problems of applying legislation on rallies, marches, demonstrations and picketing]. Upravlenie v sovremennykh sistemakh, 2017, no. 5, pp. 55—63.
Taribo Ye. V. Problemy realizatsii svobody vyrazheniya mneniy i svobody sobraniy v praktike konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya [The issues of exercising of the freedom of expressions and the freedom of assembly in the constitutional justice practice]. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipalnoe pravo, 2018, no. 2, pp. 20—31.
Tikhomirov Yu. A. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo v fokuse prava [Civil society in the focus of law]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 10, pp. 35—45.
Vasilenko V. I., Vasilenko L. A., Kazantseva O. A., Tarasova V. Ye. Modeli dialoga vlasti i obshchestva v internet-kommunikatsiyakh [Models of dialogue between the authorities and society in Internet communications]. Moscow, 2016.
Zorkin V. D. Bukva i dukh Konstitutsii [Letter and spirit of Constitution]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2018, October 9.
V. K. ANDREEV
head of the Department of civil law and corporate studies of the Russian State University of Justice, doctor of legal sciences, professor, honored scientist of the Russian Federation, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences
69, Novocheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117418
A related party transaction in a limited liability company is determined not by its essence, kind, but by its corporate character. An obligatory element of such a transaction, as well as a major transaction, is a specific subject composition. Since there is an interest of the sole executive body, members of the collegial body of the legal entity, their relatives and controlling persons in relation to the transaction, in this connection there may be a risk of damage to the interests of the companies. The decision of the general meeting of participants of the company on the consent to complete the related party transaction, being one of the forms of participation of the members of the corporation in the management of its affairs, allows to observe the interests of the economic society by committing the transaction in a certain order, the violation of which carries certain legal consequences. The norms of the Federal Law No. 343-FZ of July 3, 2016, on the duties of persons specified in the Article 45, paragraph 1 of the Law on LLC obligate to notify the company of their interest in such transactions, and the obligation of the company in turn to inform uninterested participants about the conclusion of related party transaction is considered to be legally significant messages that form part of the institution of the meeting’s resolution provided for by chapter 91 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
The author concludes that Part II, paragraph 5, Art. 43 of the Law on LLC allows to litigate separately the decision of the general meeting on consent to a related party transaction.
Keywords: related party transaction (deal with interest), resolution of the general meeting (board of directors) of the company, legally significant communications, the corporate nature of a deal with an interest, persons interested in the transaction.
Andreev V. K. O kharaktere korporativnogo dogovora [On the character of corporate agreement]. Yurist, 2015, no. 3, pp. 4—10.
Andreev V. K. Sdelka i ee nedeystvitelnost [Transaction and invalidity thereof]. Yurist, 2014, no. 1, pp. 8—12.
Andreev V. K. Tolkovanie dogovora v sootnoshenii so sdelkoy i obyazatelstvom [Interpretation of the contract in relation to the transaction and the obligation]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 4, pp. 55—62.
Andreev V. K., Laptev V. A. Korporativnoe pravo sovremennoy Rossii [Corporate law of modern Russia]. Moscow, 2017. 239 p.
Filippova S. Yu. Korporativnyy konflikt: vozmozhnosti pravovogo vozdeystviya [Corporate Conflict: Legal Impact Opportunities]. Moscow, 2009. 308 p.
Korporativnoe pravo [Corporate law]. Ed. by I. S. Shitkina. Vol. 2. Moscow, 2018. 990 p.
Yu. A. MARKS
senior research fellow of the Institute of Jurisprudence and Management of the AllRussian Police Association, candidate of political sciences
98, Boldin st., Tula, Russia, 300028
The regulation shortcomings of relations in providing educational services emerge largely due to the unclear understanding of the specifics of this object of civil legal relations.
The author sets a goal to identify those specific features that characterize the provision of educational services. This goal in the article is achieved by solving the issues, consisting in the study, as the process of providing educational services, and the features of its indirect contract.
The study’s methodological basis is a general scientific dialectic method and a systematic approach. In addition, methods, such as induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, comparative legal and structural-functional methods are used.
A comprehensive study of the educational services issues has allowed a comprehensive approach to the solution of existing scientific problems in this field, as well as determining the conceptual directions of regulation of this sphere in social relations. The article reveals the legal specifics of the educational services provision as an object of civil rights, as well as the subject of the agreement on providing educational services. The characteristics of the contract on the provision of educational services are given. The author’s list of rendering educational service features is offered.
In this research the proposals are made, which implementation, in the author’s opinion should contribute to the current legislation improvement in this area and the elimination of contradictions in law enforcement practice. The author analyzes the features of educational services and substantiates their specific nature, which gives grounds for the allocation of relevant contracts in the civil code as a separate type of contracts to provide services. Also the article proposes to adopt a special formation of the Plenum or the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation on contracts that provide educational services.
Keywords: objects of civil rights, providing services, educational services.
Barannikov M. S. Okazanie uslug kak obekt grazhdanskikh prav [Provision of services as an object of civil rights]. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2015, no. 1, pp. 61—65.
Degtyareva L. R. Finansovo-pravovoe regulirovanie institutov sistemy rossiyskogo obrazovaniya kak osnova ego modernizatsii [Financial and legal regulation of the institutions of the Russian education system as the basis for its modernization]. Yuridicheskiy mir, 2014, no. 6, pp. 59—68.
Dorokhova N. A. Antikrizisnyy kommentariy k glave 39 “Vozmezdnoe okazanie uslug” Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii (postateynyy). [Anti-crisis commentary to chapter 39 “Onerous provision of services” of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (article by article) ]. Moscow, 2011. 80 p.
Ivon Ye. V. Narushenie prav potrebiteley obrazovatelnykh uslug kak osnovanie dlya provedeniya vneplanovoy proverki v ramkakh osushchestvleniya gosudarstvennogo kontrolya (nadzora) v oblasti obrazovaniya [Violation of the rights of consumers of educational services as a basis for conducting an unscheduled inspection in the framework of state control (supervision) in the field of education]. Advokat, 2012, no. 5, pp. 55—59.
Kirillovykh A. A. Platnye obrazovatelnye uslugi: problemy pravovogo regulirovaniya [Paid educational services: problems of legal regulation]. Nalogi, 2011, no. 9, pp. 25—31.
Kokorin I. S. Predmet dogovora vozmezdnogo okazaniya obrazovatelnykh uslug: problemy ponimaniya [Subject of a paid educational services agreement: problems of understanding]. Leningradskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2016, no. 2, pp. 64—72.
Motekhina M. V., Dyakonova O. G. Problemy pravovogo regulirovaniya sudebnoy zashchity prav potrebiteley vozmezdnykh (platnykh) obrazovatelnykh uslug [Problems of legal regulation of judicial protection of the rights of consumers of compensated (paid) educational services]. Rossiyskiy sudya, 2012, no. 1, pp. 20—23.
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Petrova N. P. Predostavlenie negosudarstvennymi vysshimi uchebnymi zavedeniyami platnykh obrazovatelnykh uslug [Provision of paid educational services by non-state higher education institutions]. Yurist, 2011, no. 19, pp. 16—19.
Popova A. K. Usluga (okazanie uslug) kak obekt grazhdanskikh prav [Service (provision of services) as an object of civil rights]. Yuridicheskiy mir, 2016, no. 8, pp. 32—35.
Sitdikova L. B. Dogovornoe regulirovanie otnosheniy vozmezdnogo okazaniya obrazovatelnykh uslug: problemy teorii i praktiki [Contractual regulation of relations of paid educational services: problems of theory and practice]. Grazhdanskoe pravo, 2015, no. 4, pp. 40—43.
Volkova N. S., Dmitriev Yu. A., Yeremina O. Yu. et al. Nauchno-prakticheskiy kommentariy k Federalnomu zakonu “Ob obrazovanii v Rossiyskoy Federatsii” (postateynyy) [Scientific and practical commentary to the Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” (article by article)]. Moscow, 2013. 440 p.
Volvach Ya. V. O prezumptsii vozmezdnosti obyazatelstv po okazaniyu uslug [On the presumption of retaliation of obligations for the provision of services]. Advokat, 2013, no. 4, pp. 41—45.
Yeremina S. N. Obrazovatelnye uslugi: vzglyad s pozitsiy trudovogo prava [Educational services: a view from the standpoint of labor law]. Trudovoe pravo v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2016, no. 3, pp. 3—6.
L. V. SAGDEEVA
postgraduate student at the Department of civil law and procedure of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
The article, on the example of trademarks, discusses the vindication institute of objects that form an intellectual property and is a subject to the State registration.
This research considers national and international regulatory framework and case law. The methodology is determined by the specifics of the chosen subject and includes a set of general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison).
Key findings: the protection of a bona fide purchaser is related to general legal principles. The purchaser in any transaction shall have the right to be recognized as “bona fide”. A different approach disrupts the balance in legal transactions. The Civil Code of the Russian Federation has no general rules on a bona fide purchaser, thus it is appropriate to refer to the vindication model, and the bona fide purchaser level of protection shall be determined.
The prohibition in the Article 1227, paragraph 3 of the Civil Code shall not be considered as a prohibition on interpretation of the law. In the absence of any restrictions on the use of general norms of the Civil Code and considering the absolute and proprietary nature of such relations, it is justified to use the existing model of vindication in disputes about the “reclamation” of those objects (intellectual property) that are subject to the State registration of trademarks, patent rights and selective breeding results. The affirmation of this approach carried out by both amending the Part IV of the Civil Code and the consistent formation of law enforcement practice confirmed by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: vindication, bona fide purchaser, exclusive right, ownership, intellectual property, trademark.
Alekseev S. S. Pravo sobstvennosti: problemy teorii [Property law: theoretical challenges]. In Alekseev S. S. Sobranie sochineniy. Vol. 4. Moscow, 2010. 893 p.
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Erdelevskiy A. M. O vindikatsii nedvizhimogo imushchestva [Vindication of immovable property] (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”). 2013.
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Sukhanov Ye. A. Veshchnoe pravo: nauchno-poznavatelnyy ocherk [Property law: scientific and educational essay]. Moscow, 2017. 560 p.
Vitryanskiy V. V. Aktualnye problemy sudebnoy zashchity prava sobstvennosti na nedvizhimost [Current challenges of the judicial protection of property rights]. Grazhdanskoe pravo sovremennoy Rossii. Ed. by O. M. Kozyr, A. L. Makovskiy. Moscow, 2008. Pp. 18—34.
Yu. V. VORONIN
head of the Center for legal support of social and economic reforms of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of economic sciences, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
In the article the author analyzes several legal effects arising from incorporation of the private saving component into the national public mandatory pension system, identifies internal conflicts and problems applied in the implementation of regulation as a result of this incorporation, deals with the resulting problems of pension relations’ regulation and formulates possible approaches to defining a methodology for further study of this legal phenomenon. The paper also establishes a legal repugnance between the substantial basement of the public pension system and the newly incorporated elements of the private saving is evaluated the possibility of incorporating of private law elements into the public mandatory system, and examines covered internal conflicts and issues of applying specified regulation. After all some methods are developed for further researches of the pension savings’ legal nature and to study its optimal localization in combined pension system of the Russian Federation. Finally, it justifies some proposal on reformatting the private savings component from statutory status into voluntary one.
Keywords: regulation, pension relations, public pension system, private pension savings, pension system of the Russian Federation, pension reform, substantial legal conflict.
Arakcheev V. S. Pensionnoe pravo Rossii. St. Petersburg, 2003.
Kommentariy k zakonodatelstvu Rossiyskoy Federatsii o pensionnykh nakopleniyakh. Ed. by Yu. V. Voronin. Moscow, 2015.
Problemy obshchey chasti prava sotsialnogo obespecheniya: monografiya. Ed. by E. G. Tuchkova. Moscow, 2017.
Realizatsiya novogo pensionnogo zakonodatelstva i aktualnye problemy pensionnoy sistemy. Moscow, 2010.
Thaler R., Sunstein pp. Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Yale University, 2008.
Voronin Yu. V. Konstitutsionno-pravovye riski novogo pensionnogo zakonodatelstva. Nauchnye novatsii trudovogo prava i prava sotsialnogo obespecheniya: sbornik materialov uchastnikov sektsii trudovogo prava i prava sotsialnogo obespecheniya Moskovskogo yuridicheskogo foruma. Ed. by K. D. Krylov, E. G. Tuchkova, O. A. Shevchenko. Moscow, 2014.
Zakharov M. L., Tuchkova E. G. Pravo sotsialnogo obespecheniya Rossii. 4th ed. Moscow, 2005.
V. Ye. KVASHIS, Yu. A. SLUCHEVSKAYA
V. Ye. KVASHIS, chief research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, chief research fellow of the All-Russian Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor, honored scientist of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
Yu. A. SLUCHEVSKAYA, associate professor at the Department of criminal law and criminology of the Kaliningrad Branch of Saint-Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
30, General Galitskiy st., Kaliningrad, Russia, 236006
There is a direction in criminology that has been considering a whole complex of phenomena related to environmental crime for more than 25 years. However, it is too early to talk about its final stage of formation. The problems of the methodology remain unsolved, and subject, object and name of this approach are undefined.
The purpose of the article is to substantiate a new direction — “ecological criminology” and the identification of its specificity, taking into account the results of foreign and domestic criminological research. The tasks are to analyze foreign studies on the issue of determining the name of the direction; identifying features of its subject and object; consideration of the conceptual apparatus; identifying the main trends in the development of a new criminological direction.
In the study comparative, systemic, structural and functional methods are used for the methodology and problems and prospects of ecological criminology.
The article critically analyzes foreign studies devoted to the issue of determining the name of the direction, subject, object and conceptual framework. It is concluded, that at the present stage of criminological research on environmental crime, the name “green criminology” is the most acceptable, but in domestic criminology, it is preferable to use its equivalent — “ecological criminology”. The following reasons have emerged for the identification of ecological criminology as an independent direction of science: an increase in the risk factor of activity affecting the components of the nature; recognition of the public danger of ecology significant behavior that has a negative impact on the environment; changing the paradigm of scientific knowledge, expressed in the change of anthropocentric ideas to ecocentric ideas; the formation of a separate field in legal science that deals with the problems of human influence on nature and the use of natural resources; development of criminological ideas, the emergence of new approaches to the consideration of the subject, method and system of criminology. It is noted that in criminology a new independent direction is being formed — ecological criminology, where along with the traditional one, qualitatively new tasks arise and are set.
Keywords: criminology, green criminology, ecological criminology, environmental criminology, ecoglobal criminology, conservation criminology.
Bakharev D. V. Prostranstvennyy analiz prichinnogo kompleksa prestupnosti [Spatial analysis of the causal complex of crime]. St. Petersburg, 2016. 464 p.
Dubovik O. L. Ekologicheskaya kriminologiya: tendentsii razvitiya, metodologiya, novye napravleniya (na primere issledovaniya nezakonnoy torgovli okruzhayushchey sredoy) [Ecological criminology: development trends, methodology, new directions (for example the study of illegal trade of the environment)]. Sovremennoe ugolovnoe pravo i kriminologiya. Seriya “Pravovedenie”. Ed. by A. E. Zhalinskiy. Moscow, 2007. Pp. 221—229.
Halsey M. Against “Green” Criminology. British Journal of Criminology, 2004, vol. 44, pp. 833—853.
Kolbasov O. S. Terminologicheskie bluzhdaniya v ekologii [Terminological walks in ecology]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1999, no. 10, pp. 27—37.
Kriminologiya [Criminology]. Ed. by A. I. Dolgova. Moscow, 1997. 779 p.
Kvashis V. Ye. Izbrannye trudy po ugolovnomu pravu i kriminologii (1967—2014 gg.). [Selected Works on Criminal Law and Criminology (1967—2014)]. St. Petersburg, 2015. 1042 p.
Luneev V. V. Prestupnost ХХ veka. Mirovye, regionalnye i rossiyskie tendentsii [Crime of the twentieth century. World, regional and Russian trends]. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2005. 912 p.
Matskevich I. M. Teoreticheskoe ponyatie prestupnosti i problemy ego operatsionalizatsii [The theoretical concept of crime and the problem of its operationalization]. Lex Russica, 2006, no. 3, pp. 524—541.
Schmidt H. Ein gruner Zweig der Kriminologie? Kriminologisches Journal, 2013, Ausgabe 4. S. 260—278.
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Shestakov D. A. Teoriya prestupnosti i osnovy otraslevoy kriminologii: Izbrannoe [The theory of criminality and the grounds of the branch criminology: Selected Works]. St. Petersburg, 2015. 430 p.
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Zhalinskiy A. E. Prichiny ekologicheskikh prestupleniy [Causes of environmental crime]. Izbrannye trudy. Vol. 1: Kriminologiya. Moscow, 2014. Pp. 189—302.
E. N. KARABANOVA
head of the Department of the Research Institute of University of Prosecutor’s Office of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
15, Vtoraya Zvenigorodskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 123002
Throughout the existence of the criminal law doctrine, the object of crime is continuously on the edge of scientific thought. Yet in this sphere of scientific knowledge there remain many unsolved issues. One of them is the axiological structure of the object of the crime.
In order to determine this concept’s content in the modern criminal law doctrine, the author sets the task to identify the species diversity of the complex axiological structure of the objects of crime, to develop a methodology for comparative analysis of such objects of crime, to distribute them according to types, and critically review the existing concept of a multi-object crime.
For comprehensive and objective research, the axiological structure of the crime is considered comprehensively from the standpoint of its philosophical, social and legal content on the basis of the domestic criminal law study, jurisprudence and doctrinal sources. The necessity to differentiate the complex axiological structure of the crime object is substantiated in the article depending on the peculiarities of intra-system connections with the separation of the objects of crimes into three groups in accordance with: a comprehensive content, a comprehensive structure and a combined structure. The questions of the genesis of legal benefits, which are objects of encroachment, are covered. The difference of cumulative, integrative and complex legal benefits, which is based on the difference in their genesis, is shown. It is justified that multi-objectivity is only a crime with a comprehensive formal structure. At the same time, attention is drawn to the non-equal nature of the crime object concepts and the object of encroachment.
As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that in the theory of criminal law there is an unjustifiably wide understanding of a multi-objective crime that needs to be limited.
Keywords: object of crime, object of encroachment, object structure of crime, multi-object crime, multi-object corpus delicti.
Bokuts Ye. Yu. Ugolovno-pravovaya kharakteristika zagryazneniya atmosfery [Criminal law characteristics of air pollution]. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2017. 194 p.
Churakov D. B. Protivodeystvie prestupnym posyagatelstvam na sokhrannost lesnykh i inykh nasazhdeniy (ugolovno-pravovye i kriminologicheskie mery) [Counteraction to criminal encroachments on safety of forest and other plantations (criminal law and criminological measures)]. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2017. 268 p.
Ivanchin A. V. Konstruirovanie sostava prestupleniya: teoriya i praktika [Construction of the crime: theory and practice]. Ed. by L. L. Kruglikov. Moscow, 2014. 352 p.
Ivanov R. S. Protivodeystvie terrorizmu v pogranichnoy sfere Rossiyskoy Federatsii: ugolovno-pravovye i kriminologicheskie aspekty [Countering Terrorism in the Border Sphere of the Russian Federation: Criminal Law and Criminological Aspects]. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2016. 205 p.
Makarov S. Pravila i algoritmy kvalifikatsii prestupleniy v teorii i praktike [The Rules and Procedures of Classification of Crimes in Theory and Practice]. Ugolovnoe pravo, 2013, no. 4, pp. 33—39.
Maslakova Ye. A. K voprosu ob organizatsii nezakonnogo vooruzhennogo formirovaniya ili uchastiya v nem [On the question of the organization of illegal armed groups or participation in it]. Voenno-yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2014, no. 3, pp. 10—13.
Rastoropov S. V. Ugolovno-pravovaya okhrana zdorovya cheloveka ot prestupnykh posyagatelstv [Criminal legal protection of human health from criminal encroachments]. Cand. diss. Ryazan, 2003. 487 p.
Saveleva O. Yu. Otvetstvennost za umyshlennoe prichinenie tyazhkogo vreda zdorovyu po rossiyskomu i zarubezhnomu ugolovnomu zakonodatelstvu [Responsibility for intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm under Russian and foreign criminal law]. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2004. 239 p.
Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Chasti Obshchaya i Osobennaya [Criminal law of Russia. Parts General and Special]. Ed. by A. V. Brilliantov. Moscow, 2015. 1184 p.
Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Osobennaya chast [Criminal law of Russia. The Special part]. S. A. Baleev, L. L. Kruglikov, A. P. Kuznetsov et al. Ed. by F. R. Sundurov, M. V. Talan. Moscow, 2012. 943 p.
Ugolovnoe pravo Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Obshchaya chast [Criminal law of the Russian Federation. The Common part]. Ed. by L. V. Inogamova-Khegay, A. I. Rarog, A. I. Chuchaev. Moscow, 2008. 560 p.
Yudicheva S. A. Ugolovnaya otvetstvennost za sozdanie ekstremistskogo soobshchestva [Criminal responsibility for creating an extremist community]. Novyy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2014, no. 1, pp. 107—114.
Zakomoldin R. V. Prestupnye narusheniya spetsialnykh pravil i trebovaniy bezopasnosti [Criminal Violations of Special Rules and Security Requirements]. Tolyatti, 2013. 168 p.
N. A. POVETKINA, E. V. KUDRYASHOVA
N. A. POVETKINA, head of the Department of financial, tax and budget legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, associate professor
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E. V. KUDRYASHOVA, senior research fellow of the Department of financial, tax and budget legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences, associate professor
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
The authors of the article made an attempt to consider “financial literacy” as an up-to-date and demanded category in the modern legal regulation. The authors analyze legal formation of financial literacy and identified the prerequisites for awareness of the need to solve problems associated with improving financial literacy; the international aspects of understanding and mechanism of financial literacy are noted.
The theme of the study is considered through the prism of the following models of the relationship of private and public elements: individual — state, individual finance — public finance, financial literacy — financial stability. The authors note that financial literacy is a complex and multifaceted category, it is inextricably linked with the legal status of the individual and forms relationships with key phenomena of our time , such as the structure of society (civil society), the stability of the financial system and sustainable development; legal environment (legal literacy) and poverty eradication. The authors pointed and considered the main directions of interdependence and interrelation of financial literacy with financial stability of the state, fight against poverty of the population, system of the personality and civil society, impact of financial literacy on the anti-corruption mechanism.
Summing up, the authors emphasize the demand for the development of universal scientific and legal approaches to the study of the Russian concept of financial literacy, as well as the desire to transform the understanding of financial literacy of the individual as an aspect of the financial culture of society and the state.
Keywords: financial literacy, legal literacy, poverty elimination, financial sustainability, stability of the financial system, sustainable development, education, financial culture, anti-corruption measures.
Belekhova G. V. K voprosu o finansovoy gramotnosti naseleniya [On population financial literacy]. Territorialnye finansy, 2014, no. 1, pp. 53—65.
Bondarenko V. V., Kharitonova T. V., Tanina M. A. Povyshenie finansovoy gramotnosti kak odin iz vazhnykh instrumentov v borbe s bednostyu naseleniya [Enhancing financial literacy as one of the most important instruments in the poverty fighting]. Aktualnye voprosy finansovoy gramotnosti naseleniya: problemy i perspektivy: sbornik statey Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoprakticheskoy konferentsii shkolnikov, magistrantov, aspirantov i prepodavateley v ramkakh realizatsii sotsialno znachimogo proekta v sfere zashchity prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina “Finansovyy likbez — put k povysheniyu kachestva zhizni grazhdan, sotsialnoy stabilnosti regiona i Rossii”. Penza, 2017. Pp. 14—18.
Chulkov A. S. Povyshenie urovnya finansovoy gramotnosti naseleniya Rossii kak element sistemy ukrepleniya ekonomicheskoy bezopasnosti gosudarstva [Improving the financial literacy of the population of Russia as an element of strengthening the population of Russia as an element of strengthening the economic security of the State]. Finansy i kredit, 2016, no. 27, pp. 34—45.
Instituty finansovoy bezopasnosti [Institutes of financial security]. Ed. by I. I. Kucherov, N. A. Povetkina. Moscow, 2017.
Khimicheva N. I. Rossiyskoe finansovoe pravo na sovremennom etape [Russian financial law on the contemporary stage]. Leningradskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2013, no. 3, pp. 10—12.
Klapper L., Lusardi A. Financial Literacy Around the World. Working Paper of National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011, no. 17107.
Kudryashova E. V. Byudzhetnaya reforma i sovershenstvovanie yuridicheskoy tekhniki byudzhetnogo zakonodatelstva [Budget reform and improvement of legal technique of budgetary legislation]. Gosudarstvennaya vlast i mestnoe samoupravlenie, 2006, no. 8, pp. 38—40.
Kudryashova E. V. Lektsii po byudzhetnomu pravu [Lectures on the law of budget]. Moscow, 2010.
Kudryashova E. V. Pravovye printsipy reform v sfere finansovogo zakonodatelstva [Legal principles of reform in the field of financial legislation]. Finansovoe pravo, 2008, no. 7, pp. 12—15.
Kudryashova E. V. Sovremennyi mekhanizm pravovogo regulirovaniia gosudarstvennogo planirovaniia (na primere gosudarstvennogo finansovogo planirovaniya) [Modern Mechanism of Legal Regulation of State Planning (on the example of state financial planning)]. Moscow, 2013.
Moiseev V. V. Borba s bednostyu v sovremennoy Rossii [Straggle against poverty in Russia]. Sotsiologiya vlasti, 2011, no. 3, pp. 34—47.
Povetkina N. A. Finansovaya ustoychivost Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Pravovaya doktrina i praktika obespecheniya [Financial stability of the Russian Federation. The legal doctrine and practice to ensure: monograph]. Ed. by I. I. Kucherov. Moscow, 2016.
Povetkina N. A. Kontseptsiya pravovogo obespecheniya finansovoy ustoychivosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Concept of Legal Support for Financial Stability of the Russian Federation]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 8, pp. 77—89.
Povetkina N. A. Pravovye sredstva obespecheniya finansovoy ustoychivosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Legal Means of Provision of Financial Sustainability]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 6, pp. 31—36.
Putin V. V. Zhit po-chelovecheski [Live in a human way]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2008, February 9.
Solovev A. K. Problemy sokrashcheniya bednosti pensionerov v Rossii v usloviyakh byudzhetnogo krizisa [The issues of Reduction of Poverty of the Russian Pensioners in the Budget Crisis Conditions]. Sotsialnoe i pensionnoe pravo, 2018, no. 1, pp. 44—49.
Stolypin P. A. Programma reform. Dokumenty i materialy [The program of reform. Documents and materials]. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2011. Vol. 1.
Tikhomirov Yu. A. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo v fokuse prava [Citizen in the focus of law]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 10, pp. 35—45.
Tsirin A. M., Dymberova E. D., Shindyapina Ye. D. Finansovye mekhanizmy protiv korruptsii: mezhdunarodnye standarty i natsionalnye resheniya [Financial mechanisms against the corruption: international standards and national solutions]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 9, pp. 100—113.
N. A. MOROZOVA
associate professor at the Department of constitutional, administrative and municipal law of the Siberian Federal University, judge of the Third arbitration appeal court, candidate of legal sciences
79, Svobodnyy ave., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660041
The article is devoted to the problem of using mandatory (absolutely definite) sanctions in the process of imposition of administrative actions. When writing the article, the author pursued the aim to prove the inadmissibility of the widespread use of absolutely certain sanctions, and to determine the criteria of rare cases when their use is justified.
Formal-legal, dialectical, comparative-legal methods, methods of synthesis and analysis are used.
The author comes to the conclusion that the use of mandatory sanctions by the legislator in imposition of administrative actions for specific offenses is a sign of excessive severity of administrative penalties. The author argues that the increase in punishment does not lead to an increase in its effectiveness. When determining the appropriate amount of punishment for a tort, the legislator should be guided by the principle of cost — effectiveness of punishment-to provide for the possibility of imposing a more severe punishment only if the less severe one does not allow the prevention to be achieved as the purpose of administrative responsibility. Instead, the excessive desire of the legislator to strengthen administrative sanctions leads to multiple negative consequences. This approach makes it impossible to individualize responsibility and take into account all the circumstances of the offense and the offender’s personality. This violates the fundamental principles of differentiation and individualization of administrative responsibility. The author believes that mandatory sanctions can be used only in exceptional cases-either in imposition of responsibility for the smallest and most formal offenses; or, on the contrary, as a last resort, only for repeated offenses from among the most socially dangerous, entailing real harm to an indefinite scope of persons. In other cases, as a general rule, the law enforcement officer should be able to choose from two or more penalties provided for by the sanction of the article.
Keywords: administrative responsibility, alternative sanctions, mandatory sanctions, administrative punishment.
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E. V. VINOGRADOVA
leading research fellow of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, doctor of legal sciences, professor
10, Znamenka st., Moscow, Russia, 119019
The effectiveness of judicial procedures depends to a large extent on the availability of mechanisms to enable the parties to a legal conflict to choose how to resolve it. One of these mechanisms is the mediation procedure, widely used in many countries, and legally stipulated in Russia in 2010. In recent years, a wide interest in the mediation procedure has created prerequisites for making changes to the legislation, which, unfortunately, are formulated without sufficient theoretical research based on studies of a proper degree of representativeness. The author studies the procedures of judicial mediation in a view of constitutional frameworks of proceedings, in accordance with the changes proposed by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in their legislative regulation.
The methodological basis of the study was focused on the dialectical approach and the principles of objectivity and comparability of a set of methods of scientific knowledge, analysis and synthesis, comparative law and others, ensuring the reliability of the study.
According to the author, the legal regulation of mediation in Russia is sufficient to solve practical problems, despite the meager mediation practice, the weakness of self-regulation mechanisms and awareness of market participants about the possibilities of mediation. The high demand in the Russian society for accessible and effective dispute settlement mechanisms, taking into account the experience of other countries, determines the validity of the introduction of mediation procedures. It is necessary to extend them to public relations very carefully and carefully after long-term experiments. In the current legislation, in order to achieve a balance of constitutional values, the use of mediation procedure should be limited to civil law relations.
Keywords: mediation, judicial process, judicial mediator.
Kalashnikova S. I. Mediatsiya v sfere grazhdanskoy yurisdiktsii. Cand. diss. thesis. Yekaterinburg, 2010.
Sistema obespecheniya zakonodatelnoy deyatelnosti na sayte Gosudarstvennoy Dumy Federalnogo Sobraniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Available at: http://sozd.parliament.gov.ru/bill/421600-7.
E. G. STRELTSOVA
associate professor at the Department of civil and administrative proceedings of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University, candidate of legal sciences
9, Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 125993
The modern legislation of many states allows the agreement of the parties on the order of the process, without distinguishing the types of agreement. But contracts in alternative dispute resolution and agreements in civil proceedings have different prerequisites and belong to different variants of regulation. Contracts in civil proceedings reflect its public-legal nature and comply with the principle of optionality. Signs of these agreements are their non-binding for the court, the secondary importance of the agreement for the process. The contract has no legal value until it is accepted by the court. In turn, in contracts concluded in the course of alternative procedures, the parties themselves determine the scope of their procedural rights, and then dispose of them. Dissimilar in their legal nature types of agreements cannot connect to the same process. Therefore, in the judicial practice of countries that allow procedural agreements on the type of alternative methods of dispute resolution in civil proceedings, there were problems associated with the inability to ensure effective equality of the parties. The civil process with the public-legal form of its organization should remain a universal way of protection.
Keywords: procedural contract, procedural form, state obligations, court, judicial discretion, the rights of the parties, alternative methods of dispute resolution, unequal bargaining power.
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N. I. KHLUDENEVA
leading research fellow of the Department of environmental legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
The legal nature, content, grounds and conditions for the application of property liability for environmental damage are still not clearly defined either in doctrine or in legislation. No single approach has been developed in the use of special terminology denoting the key concepts of the legal institution of compensation for damage caused to the environment (environmental harm or damage to the environment, property liability for damage to objects of nature or civil liability for damage to the environment, etc.). Such ambiguity complicates the current practice of law enforcement in the sphere under consideration. The practice of compensation for environmental damage shows that the legal mechanism of compensation for such damage is not devoid of conceptual, legal and technical defects that hinder the effectiveness of compensation and preventive functions of property liability for damage to the environment. It is also impossible not to pay attention to the presence of litigation in cases of compensation for damage to the environment arising from the ambiguous understanding of nature users of their obligations to compensate for damage to the environment. In the legislation there is no differentiation in the legal regulation of application of measures of property character in the case where such damage was caused by the unfair actions of the users of natural resources and legal economic and other activities which are approved by the state. At the same time, more and more often in recent years, social and legal practice actualizes the issue of the limits of property liability for environmental damage.
Keywords: environmental damage, environmental legislation, legal problems of compensation for environmental damage, the limits of property liability in the environmental field.
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B. A. KURKIN
professor at the Department of international law of the Law Institute of the Tambov State Technical University, doctor of legal sciences, professor
F. V. TSOMARTOVA
senior research fellow of the Department of social legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
Review of the meeting of law section (26 November 2018).