Contents of issue # 1/2020

■ XIV ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC READINGS DEVOTED TO THE MEMORY OF PROFESSOR S. N. BRATUS

To the 115th Anniversary of the Birth of Sergey Nikitich Bratus  Pdf 16

P. V. KRASHENINNIKOV

State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

Development Problems of Investment Legislation in the Russian Federation at the Present Stage

O. V. GUTNIKOV

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: oleg_gutnikov@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.001

Abstract
The current investment legislation of the Russian Federation is unsystematic and controversial. This is due to the complex nature of the relevant legal norms, which are within both public law and private law.
The article aims to examine the specific current development issues of Russian investment legislation and to identify possible ways to solve them. It also defines the composition, subject and method of investment regulation.
The research is based on general research methods (analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, system analysis) and methods of legal science (methods of literal, systematic, teleological and historical interpretation of legal norms).
The subject, method and composition of investment legislation relating to different branches of public and private law are disclosed. The main development issues of the investment legislation system are considered and directions for the latter's further improvement are proposed. There is a critical analysis of the main draft laws in the investment sphere, such as “On the Protection and Promotion of Investments and the Development of Investment Activities in the Russian Federation”, “On Preferential Business Regimes in the Russian Federation”. The paper concludes that there is an unjustified mix of private and public law principles in the investment regulation within existing laws, where public law principles excessively prevail. It is proposed to regulate separately investment relations with state participation by special normative acts of both general and special nature (for example, a unified law on agreements concluded with the participation of public law entities in the investment sphere). Private legal investment relations should remain in the field of civil law regulation with the possible expansion of investment instruments which private investors can use for investment.

Keywords
investment legislation, investments, investment relations, contracts in the investment sphere, agreements on the protection and promotion of investment.

For citation
Gutnikov O. V. Development Problems of Investment Legislation in the Russian Federation at the Present Stage. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 9—21. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.001 (In Russ.)

References

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Antipova O. M. Legal Regulation of Investment Activity (Analysis of Theoretical and Practical Problems). Moscow, 2007. 248 p. (In Russ.)

Belitskaya A. V. Legal Support of State Investment Policy. Dr. diss. Moscow, 2018. 618 p. (In Russ.)

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Demin A. V. General Issues of the Theory of Administrative Contract. Krasnoyarsk, 1998. 92 p. (In Russ.)

Doronina N. G., Semilyutina N. G. Problems and Paths of Development of Investment Legislation of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 6, pp. 5—14. (In Russ.)

Gutnikov O. V. Corporate Liability in Civil Law. Moscow, 2019. 488 p. (In Russ.)

Gutnikov O. V. Trends of Development of the Investment Legislation in the Russian Federation. Investments in National and International Law: Balance of Public and Private Interests: the Collection of Materials for the XIV Annual Scientific Readings in Memoriam of Professor S. N. Bratus. Moscow, 2019. Pp. 165—179. (In Russ.)

Korenev A. P., Abdurakhmanov A. A. Administrative Contracts: Concept and Types. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 1998, no. 7, pp. 83—91. (In Russ.)

Mayfat A. V. Legal Constructions of Investment in Civil Law. Moscow, 2006. 328 p. (In Russ.)

Novoselov V. I. On the Issue of Administrative Contracts. Pravovedenie, 1969, no. 3, pp. 40—45. (In Russ.)

Sinitsyn S. A. “Investment Element” in Civil Legal Relationship: Difficulties of the Combination of Economic and Law Tools. Investments in National and International Law: Balance of Public and Private Interests: the Collection of Materials for the XIV Annual Scientific Readings in Memoriam of Professor S. N. Bratus. Moscow, 2019. Pp. 249—262. (In Russ.)

Yampol'skaya Ts. A. On the Theory of an Administrative Contract. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1966, no. 10, pp. 132—136. (In Russ.)

Economic Policy Nationalization of Russian Constituent Entities (Constitutional Aspect)

V. D. MAZAEV

National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
E-mail: vmazaev9@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.002

Abstract
The article raises an issue of improving legal conditions for economy within Russian constituent entities. One of the factors of favorable investment climate is the legal certainty of market institutions. In Russia, the nationalization institution is a tool to solve economic problems afflicting public authorities and as a guarantee for protection of private property rights. But its legal content and mechanism of implementation are not defined by law. Nationalization is a necessary instrument to solve important tasks for economic development of Russian constituent entities. It ensures the withdrawal of property from inefficient owners to the state to create promising investment projects, new opportunities for a regional market economy. There is a number of examples of a need to nationalize (withdrawal of property from private persons into state ownership) large industrial complexes. An example of regional nationalization in the new constituent entities of the Russian Federation (the Republic of Crimea, Sevastopol) is singled out. While recognizing the political and economic necessity to use this institution for the transitional period, the ambiguous assessment of the constitutional and legal certainty of regional authorities on this issue is also recognized. It is proposed that the Federal legislator solves this problem through the adoption of the Federal law on nationalization, which defines the concept, content and main parameters of the nationalization mechanism. At the same time, it is necessary to resolve the issue of empowering the constituent entity of the Federation to regulate certain issues of the nationalization procedure and the definition of nationalized objects for solving the problems of regional economic policy.

Keywords
investments, economic policy, constituent entities of the Russian Federation, nationalization, powers.

For citation
Mazaev V. D. Economic Policy Nationalization of Russian Constituent Entities (Constitutional Aspect). Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 22—32. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.002 (In Russ.)

References

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Konovalov A. I. Nationalization of property. Problems of legal regulation. Moscow, 2012. Pp. 7—9. (In Russ.)

Kroshnyy I. Will investments Come to Russia in 2019. Available at: https://betafinance.ru/blogs/pridut-li-investicii-v-rossiyu-v-2019-godu.html. (In Russ.)

Mazaev V. D. Nationalization as a constitutional phantom. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2013, no. 5, pp. 95—105. (In Russ.)

Merkulova S. Crimean nationalization reached the Supreme court of the Russian Federation. Available at: http://pravo. ru/court_report/view/117408/ (accessed 24.11.2015). (In Russ.)

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Nationalization. Comments. Big Russian Encyclopedia. Available at: https://www.histrf.ru/articles/article/show/natsionalizatsiia. (In Russ.)

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Plotnikova I. N. Peculiarities of legal regulation and protection of the constitutional right to private property in the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol. Vestnik Saratovskoy gosudarstvennoy yuridicheskoy akademii, 2015, no. 5 (106), pp. 41—49. (In Russ.)

Report on the state of competition in the Russian Federation for 2018. Available at: https://fas.gov.ru/documents/685806 (accessed 02.11.2019). (In Russ.)

Reyting investitsionnoy privlekatel'nosti regionov Rossii po itogam 2018 goda. Available at: http://www.ra-national.ru/ru/node/63076.

Tambovtsev V. L. Property rights, privatization and nationalization in Russia. Moscow, 2009. (In Russ.)

Yastrebova S. Bad investment climate does not allow Russia to rise in the ranking of competitiveness of countries. Available at: https://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/articles/2019/10/09/813189-plohoi-investitsionnii-klimat (accessed 03.10.2019). (In Russ.)

Noncommercial Organizations and Investment Attractiveness of Russia: Legal Regulation

E. A. ABROSIMOVA

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow119991, Russian Federation
E-mail: e_abrosimova@law.msu.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.003

Abstract
The article considers the issue of unequal legislative regulation of the participation of noncommercial organizations in the implementation of investment policy in the Russian Federation in comparison with other investment activity actors. The author formulates proposals for improving the current legislation on Russian noncommercial organizations that attract foreign funding to the Russian economy based on an analysis of the provisions of the Federal laws “On Noncommercial Organizations” and “On Foreign Investments in the Russian Federation”. In the light of the development of investment legislation, the design of term “noncommercial organization acting as a foreign agent” is critically evaluated from the constitutional principle of equality of subjects of law perspective.
The methodological basis of the study includes general scientific and special methods of cognition, system-structural, formal-legal, formal-logical methods, as well as the method of interpretation of law.
Conclusions are: in the investment sphere, noncommercial organizations with foreign financing sources are affected in their rights in comparison with other participants in investment relations; the restrictive legal regime established for noncommercial organizations attracting funds from abroad requires a significant adjustment for the establishment of exclusively necessary minimum restrictions; additional guarantees are required regarding judicial protection of the rights of Russian noncommercial organizations involved in investment activities.

Keywords
noncommercial (non-profit) organizations, foreign financing sources, investments, foreign agent, Federal law “On Noncommercial Organizations”, Federal law “On Foreign Investments in the Russian Federation”.

For citation
Abrosimova E. A. Noncommercial Organizations and Investment Attractiveness of Russia: Legal Regulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 33—42. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.003 (In Russ.)

References

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Alen'kin I. V. Public associations in the constitutional legal system. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2019. 315 p. (In Russ.)

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Belitskaya A. V. Legal support of state investment policy. Dr. diss. Moscow, 2018. 618 p. (In Russ.)

Chaplin N. Yu. On noncommercial organizations and ensuring the security and stability of the Russian state. Bezopasnost' biznesa, 2017, no. 2, pp. 3—7. (In Russ.)

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Kakitelashvili M. M. Non-profit organizations acting as a foreign agent, as an instrument of “color revolutions”. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2016, no. 4, pp. 30—33. (In Russ.)

Lutsenko E. S. Category “Noncommercial Organization performing the Function of a Foreign Agent” in Russian Legislation. Nauka i obrazovanie: khozyaystvo i ekonomika; predprinimatel'stvo; pravo i upravlenie, 2018, no. 2, pp. 111—114. (In Russ.)

Lysenko V. V. Financing Scientific Production Associations: Russian, International and Regional Experience. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2015, no. 3, pp. 63—67. (In Russ.)

Mikhaylov V. K. A critical view of the position of the Constitutional Court on the recognition of a noncommercial organization as a foreign agent. Pravo i sovremennye gosudarstva, 2015, no. 1, pp. 17—28. (In Russ.)

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Report on the implementation by the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation of state control (supervision) in the field of non-profit organizations and on the effectiveness of such control (supervision) in 2017. Available at: http://minjust.ru/doklady-ob-osushchestvleniiministerstvom-yusticii-rossiyskoy-federacii-gosudarstvennogo-kontrolya-0. (In Russ.)

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Legal Regulation of Investments in Small and Medium Enterprise: Experience of the Republic of Kazakhstan

R. K. SARPEKOV, Ye. A. DYUSENOV

Institute of Legislation and Legal Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
E-mail: instzak-kz@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.004

Abstract
This article draws attention to the relevance of government agencies' coordinated and consistent work to attract investment for economic development of the country. The achieved indicators, according to the world Bank's “Doing Business” rating in the context of a comparative assessment of the efforts made in all assessed states, show the need for continuous work on the development of legislation and institutional reforms. At the same time, the authors explore some theoretical and practical aspects of investment regulation in the context of state support measures and ongoing work to improve the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In terms of developing the investment climate the article highlights the main events arising from the investment policy: the creation of an International financial center "Astana", the functions of the investment Ombudsman of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan, development of integration of the Eurasian economic Union, the adoption of the Entrepreneurial code in 2015.
The purpose of the study is to study approaches in the legal regulation of investment attraction and to consider the issues of improving the legislative support for small and medium-sized enterprises and to create conditions for attracting investments.
Methodological tools consist of general scientific, private scientific methods of cognition, namely: formal legal, comparative legal and analytical methods.
Basis on the conducted research, it is permissible to determine promising areas of support for small and medium-sized enterprises, to consider the issues of state support for attracting investments, to promote actions for better ranking in the doing Business Rating of the World Bank. The article highlights the main innovations of legislative activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan for improving the investment climate, presents trends in improving the Kazakh legislation. Based on the experience of certain foreign countries, certain directions of support and development of small and medium-sized enterprises are formulated.

Keywords
investments, small and medium-sized enterprises, Republic of Kazakhstan, law.

For citation
Sarpekov R. K., Dyusenov Ye. A. Legal Regulation of Investments in Small and Medium Enterprise: Experience of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 43—55. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.004 (In Russ.)

References

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By the end of 2018, the share of SMEs in GDP amounted to 28.3% — the MNE on the results of the implementation of the BRM-2020. Available at: https://www.zakon.kz/4970565-poitogam-2018-goda-dolya-msb-v-vvp.html. (In Russ.)

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Doronina N. G., Semilyutina N. G. Problems and Paths of Development of Investment Legislation of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 6, pp. 5—14. (In Russ.)

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The volume of international investments into kazakhstan increased by 15.8% this year and reached a record value for the last five years. Available at: https://finreview.info/ru/review/ objom-mezhdunarodnyh-investicionnyh-potokov-v-kazahstan-uvelichilsja-na-15-8-za-god-idostig-rekordnogo-znachenija-za-poslednie-pjat-let/. (In Russ.)

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Review of XIV Annual Scientific Readings “Investments in National and International Law: Balance of Private and Public Interests” Devoted to the Memory of Professor S. N. Bratus  Pdf 16

P. D. BAGRYANSKAYA, O. A. BELYAEVA, M. O. DOLOVA, T. A. LEVONENKOVA, E. V. YAMASHEVA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

The Right to Education and Its Realization by Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Federation

L. N. VASILIEVA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: liav2013@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.005

Abstract
The year 2019 has been declared by the United Nations as the Year of the Native Languages of the Indigenous People. In the Russian Federation, indigenous languages are developed and protected in accordance with its international obligations. The article analyzes the legislation of the Russian Federation and its main trends in the realization of the indigenous peoples' right to education. Education in the national language is focused on: education in the native language, which belongs the languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation; the study of the state language of a constituent republic (native to a certain ethnic group); the study of the native language, which belongs to the languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation; the availability of additional guarantees for the study of Russian as a native language. The article reveals issues in this connection and suggests directions for overcoming them.
The author examines the rights of indigenous peoples guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation in accordance with the generally recognized principles and norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation. The article investigates two main ideas: the first one is to create stimulating conditions for the development of indigenous languages and the implementation of opportunities for indigenous peoples to get education in their native languages. The second idea is to classify indigenous peoples into special categories that receive additional state support for their education. The author also refers to measures aimed at improving the legal status of the language of indigenous peoples, including special provisions on the right to education in such a language.

Keywords
national language, right to education, right to use national language, national state policy, educational standards, language of education, indigenous peoples.

For citation
Vasilieva L. N. The Right to Education and Its Realization by Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 80—88. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.005 (In Russ.)

References

Andrichenko L. V. Legal regulation of the status of indigenous peoples of the North of Russia. Russian Arctic-territory of law: almanac. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2014. (In Russ.)

Garipov R. Sh. Indigenous Small-numbered Peoples: Guarantees of Rights and Freedoms. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2012, no. 6, pp. 67—73. (In Russ.)

Shul'ga O. National languages will remain in the school program. Parlamentskaya gazeta, 2018, June 15—21. (In Russ.)

Public-Legal and Private-Legal Principles of Election Campaigning Regulation

N. Yu. TOURISHCHEVA

Kuban State University, Krasnodar 350040, Russian Federation
E-mail: dom0023@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.006

Abstract
The article is devoted to the regulation of pre-election campaigning as the main legal means to achieve the goal of candidates for election. The diversity of pre-election campaign, designed not only to ensure transparency of the electoral process, but also to respect the equal rights of its members, is the reason that the mechanism of elections — the institution of propaganda — is the clearest demonstration of interaction between public and private law elements inherent in specific methods of regulation. The author analyzes the changes in Federal legislation related to the prohibition to use images and the restriction to use statements of individuals. The tightening of legal provisions in details does not allow giving an unambiguous assessment of the changed regulatory requirements. The presence of such categories as "indefinite circle of persons" and "the main object of use", which do not have clear definitions in law and have a pronounced evaluative character, leaves open questions of interpretation of the relevant rules.
The paper investigates the law enforcement practice of election commissions and court bodies to evaluate campaign materials. Requirements for acceptable options for the use of images of candidates are applicable to all forms of campaigning: not only for printed, but also to audiovisual materials containing images of candidates, including those posted in the media and on the Internet, as well as to other materials of large formats (banners, city boards, etc.). In order to protect the electoral system from a possible destructive impact, the state establishes measures in the form of strict regulation of private legal elements of pre-election campaigning, which levels the essential basis of elections as a conflict between candidates (electoral associations), which origins are laid in the very nature of the competitive electoral process. This objectively increases the importance of public regulation in the system of legal relations connected to the implementation of subjective electoral rights.

Keywords
election campaigning, methods of legal regulation, private interest, public interest, measures of responsibility.

For citation
Tourishcheva N. Yu. Public-Legal and Private-Legal Principles of Election Campaigning Regulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 89—100. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.006 (In Russ.)

References

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Golovin A. G. Principles of the information of voters and conducting of pre-election agitation — basis of the legitimate propagation of information about the elections in Russia. Pravo i gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2009, no. 1, pp. 23—27. (In Russ.)

Korshunov N. M. Private and Public Law: Issues of Forming the Basis of the Modern Theory of Convergence. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2010, no. 5, pp. 66—71. (In Russ.)

Koval' D. V. Violation of legislation on intellectual property during the period of election campaign as a constitutional-law delict: on the issue of grounds of responsibility. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2014, no. 7, pp. 58—62. (In Russ.)

Momotov V. V. The interpretation of law by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in the context of the modern legal system. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2018, no. 4, pp. 30—39. (In Russ.)

Nikishov A. B. Legal regulation of intellectual property in information support of elections. Kopirayt (vestnik Akademii intellektual'noy sobstvennosti), 2018, no. 1, pp. 87—91. (In Russ.)

Postnikov A. E. On Constitutional Legal Method of Regulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2012, no.12, pp. 32—38. (In Russ.)

Postnikov A. E. The Evolution of Elections in Russia in the Context of Implementation of Constitutional Principles. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 21—30. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_2

Ruzakova O. A Violations of intellectual property law in election campaigns. Patenty i litsenzii, 2016, no. 11, pp. 12—16. (In Russ.)

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■ CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY

Movement of Assets and Illegal Withdrawal of Funds: Current Issues of Counteraction

M. KUDRATOV, D. A. PECHEGIN

M. KUDRATOV, University of Regensburg, Regensburg 93053, Germany
E-mail: Kudratov@Ostrecht.de

D. A. PECHEGIN, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: crim5@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.007

Abstract
The globalization of the world monetary system, the emergence of new financial technologies and the dynamics of their implementation in the practice of individual countries form a situation in which the Russian Federation faces the need to find the best option to adapt to the current conditions and challenges. There are many jurisdictions in the world that have legalized crypto assets (Bitcoin, Litecoin, etc.) or do not prohibit their use on their territory. Such technologies in many aspects and in the presence of the necessary infrastructure can accelerate the country's economy, simplify civil turnover.
The Republic of Belarus joined the countries that legalized the use of crypto assets on their territory in 2017. However, in the Russian Federation, cryptocurrencies are not monetary instruments, not recognized as money or its equivalent. The lack of proper regulation of the cryptosphere in the Russian Federation, while there is such a regulation in the Republic of Belarus, as well as the lack of unity of law enforcement agencies on the nature of new financial entities, rise up practical problems and hinder the protection of interests protected by domestic criminal law. The analysis of the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in connection with new financial technologies and entities presented in the article reveals the threat of a new method of illegal withdrawal of capital and aims to offer ways out of the current situation. Due to the fact that the movement of assets is somehow connected with the legislation of other countries, the article also shortly covers the issues of current regulation of the analyzed aspects in foreign jurisdictions.
The article uses systemic and comparative legal methods. Synthesis of generalizing characteristics in solving the problems of the cryptosphere regulation allows predicting and using such data for the purposes of improving domestic legislation.

Keywords
cryptocurrency, token, Russian Federation, Republic of Belarus, cash smuggling, Eurasian Economic Union, asset movement, illegal withdrawal of funds.

For citation
Kudratov M., Pechegin D. A. Movement of Assets and Illegal Withdrawal of Funds: Current Issues of Counteraction. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 101—111. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.007 (In Russ.)

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Krylova A. V. Zloupotreblenie polnomochiyami v kommercheskikh i inykh organizatsiyakh: problemy ugolovno-pravovoy kvalifikatsii. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2017.

Kucherov I. I. Elements of the Financial Security and Its Legal Support. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 6, pp. 69—79. (In Russ.)

Kunev D. A., Volevodz A. G. On combating transfer of criminal assets to foreign jurisdictions and their return to the countries of origin. Mezhdunarodnoe ugolovnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnaya yustitsiya, 2019, no. 3, pp. 3—8. (In Russ.)

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Pashentsev D. A. Russian Legislative Tradition before the Challenge of Digitalization. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 2, pp. 5—13. (In Russ.)

Povetkina N. A., Ledneva Y. V. Fintekh and Redtekh: Boundaries of Legal Regulation. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki = Law. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2018, no. 2, pp. 46—67. (In Russ.)

Truntsevsky Yu. V. Digital (virtual) currency and anti-money laundering: legal regulation. Bankovskoe pravo, 2018, no. 2, pp. 18—28. (In Russ.)

Wegberg R., Oerlemans J., Deventer O. Bitcoin money laundering: mixed results?: An explorative study on money laundering of cybercrime proceeds using bitcoin. Journal of Financial Crime, 2018, vol. 25, iss. 2, pp. 419—435. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JFC-11-2016-0067 (accessed 03.07.2019).

Instruments of Recognition of a Criminalized Act as a Criminal Offence (on the Example of Crimes Against the Person)

I. Yu. YANINA

Moscow State Regional University, Moscow 105005, Russian Federation
E-mail: yanina_i@bk.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.008

Abstract
In light of the introduction to the State Duma of the Russian Federation of the bill No. 612292-7 “On amendments to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the introduction of the concept of criminal misconduct” the article reveals the actual problem of admissibility (inadmissibility) of the recognition of crimes against the person, which are not punishable by imprisonment, a criminal offense.
The aim of the study is to identify the criteria that allow classifying the act prohibited by the criminal law as a criminal offense. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are set: to show the importance of the theory of criminal law infliction as a means of proving crime acts in the context of criminal misconduct; to prove the presence of socially significant harm and socially significant changes in the object of criminal law protection by establishing the nature and degree of social danger of crimes against the life, health, interests of minors; to justify the absence of public danger of crimes with administrative prejudice, located in Chapter VII of the Russian Criminal Code; to show the features of the negative impact in the object of criminal law protection of crimes against honor, dignity of the individual, constitutional human and civil rights.
The research is based on formal-legal, linguistic, logical, comparative legal research methods that allow to consider the problem in a complex way.
On the basis of the theory of criminal-legal infliction the author provide theoretical and practical recommendations on the need to preserve in the criminal law socially dangerous acts against the life, health, interests of minors as crimes of minor gravity; the implementation of decriminalization of crimes with administrative prejudice, provided for in articles 1161 and 1511 of the Russian Criminal Code; expediency of recognition as a criminal offense of crimes against the person, the direct object of which is the honor, dignity of the person, constitutional rights of man and citizen.

Keywords
criminal-legal infliction, object of criminal-legal protection, criminalization, decriminalization, criminal offense, crimes against the person, public danger.

For citation
Yanina I. Yu. Instruments of Recognition of a Criminalized Act as a Criminal Offence (on the Example of Crimes Against the Person). Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 112—121. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.008 (In Russ.)

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■ PROCEDURAL LAW

Recognition and Enforcement of Insolvency-Related Judgments in the Light of the UNCITRAL Model Law 2018

I. O. KHLESTOVA, A. I. SHCHUKIN

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: pil@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.009

Abstract
One of the guarantees that ensure free international trade, the movement of labor, services, capital, is the Institute of recognition and enforcement of judicial decisions of foreign states. In modern economic conditions, the problem of the validity of court decisions abroad in relation to cross-border insolvency, which is based on the concept of primary and secondary bankruptcy proceedings, is becoming increasingly urgent. Issues of recognition and enforcement of decisions in bankruptcy cases due to the specifics of these cases are excluded from the scope of regulation of most universal international treaties relating to cross-border circulation of judicial acts. The practice of applying the national legislation of a number of states (in particular the United Kingdom), based on the UNCITRAL model law on cross-border insolvency (1997), assumes that judicial assistance in bankruptcy cases involves the recognition only of foreign bankruptcy proceedings, and not decisions taken in connection with such proceedings (for example, decisions on avoidance of the debtor's transactions). In those countries (USA) where there is a special regulation of recognition and enforcement of such foreign decisions, it does not cover all judicial acts that can be broadly considered to be related to bankruptcy proceedings. The need in practice to establish a fair and effective mechanism for cooperation between courts of different states and to assist in the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments issued in connection with bankruptcy proceedings led to the development in 2018 of the UNCITRAL Model law on this issue.
In Russia, recognition and enforcement of foreign decisions related to bankruptcy proceedings is carried out according to the general rules provided for in the civil (arbitration) procedural legislation. Taking into account current global trends in the regulation of these issues would be useful for further improvement of Russian legislation, which at the moment does not take into account all the specifics of cross-border insolvency relations. The flexibility inherent in the norms of model acts developed by international organizations and recommended for inclusion in national legislation, as compared to international conventions, allows the state to modify or delete certain provisions of the uniform text.

Keywords
recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, cross-border insolvency, crossborder bankruptcy, model law, UNCITRAL.

For citation
Khlestova I. O., Shchukin A. I. Recognition and Enforcement of Insolvency-Related Judgments in the Light of the UNCITRAL Model Law 2018. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 122—139. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.009 (In Russ.)

References

Afonin V. E., Kondrat E. N., Kovyazin V. V., Murmuridis P. E. Recognition and enforcement of foreign court and arbitration decisions in insolvency cases in private international law as one of the most urgent problems of the Institute of cross-border insolvency. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, 2006, no. 4, pp. 98—101. (In Russ.)

Anufrieva L. P. Private International law: Cross-border bankruptcy. International commercial arbitration. International civil procedure. Moscow, 2001. 768 p. (In Russ.)

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Baradanchenkova N. E. Acknowledgment and Enforcement of Judgments of Foreign Courts within the Framework of Insolvency (Bankruptcy) Cases. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2018, no. 12, pp. 46—48. (In Russ.).

Bischof R. New Cross-border Insolvency and Restructuring Law in Switzerland. INSOL International. Technical Series, 2018, iss. 41, pp. 1—4.

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Marysheva N. I., Shchukin A. I. “Foreign Element” in Revising Court Decisions Because of New Circumstances: Russian Legislation and Court Practice. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki = Law. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2019, no. 2, pp. 163—188. (In Russ.).

Metreveli L. Toward Standardized Enforcement of Cross-Border Insolvency Decisions: Encouraging the United States to Adopt UNCITRAL's Recent Amendment to its Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency. Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems, 2018, vol. 51, pp. 315—346.

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Shchukin A. I. On the legalization of a foreign judicial decision against a Russian legal entity in respect of which bankruptcy proceedings were initiated. Zakon, 2016, no. 8, pp. 142—153. (In Russ.)

Application of the Analogy of the Law in Cases Arising from Administrative and Other Public Relations

A. V. TOPOROV, B. R. BURGANOV

Arbitration Court of the Volga District, Kazan 420066, Russian Federation
E-mail: bulat.b-85@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.010

Abstract
The relevance of the chosen topic is connected with the need to solve the problems arising in arbitration proceedings as a result of the application of the analogy of the law to overcome the gaps encountered in law enforcement. The review of the results of scientific research and legal practice shows us that the application of the analogy of the law in court cases needs targeted study and legal justification, in particular in cases arising from administrative and other public relations.
The article pays attention to the solution of issues in the sphere of using of the analogy of the law in arbitration proceedings, which can significantly affect the adoption of fair judgments. Also, it can solve such problems as the role of the study of analogy of the law in modern conditions, the allocation of historical legal aspects of development of institute of analogy of law, analysis of judicial practice related to the use of the analogy of law in making judicial decisions associated with administrative and other legal relations.
In present article the author used such methods as generalization and comparison, a systematic approach, the allocation of general and particular features of the object of study, a review of examples from legal practice.
The study specified the need to explore the analogy of law in legal relations, the historical and legal stages of the development of analogy of law, defined duties of the court to use several additional steps in the application of analogy of law. Based on the analysis of the court practice in arbitration proceedings the author found some features of application of analogy of law in cases arising from administrative and other public legal relations. Attention is drawn to the ambiguous interpretation of the concept of "similar provisions" by law enforcers in various legal situations. In the final part the author provides some conclusions, in particular, that the use of analogy of law requires a higher level of legal responsibility and legal outlook of the country's judiciary.

Keywords
legal science, arbitration process, analogy of law.

For citation
Toporov A. V., Burganov B. R. Application of the Analogy of the Law in Cases Arising from Administrative and Other Public Relations. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 140—146. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.010 (In Russ.)

References

Burganov B. R. Issues of Improvement of Arbitration Proceeding Principles. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2018, no. 5, pp. 10—14. (In Russ.)

Ershov V. V. Legal and individual regulation of social relations. Moscow, 2018. 628 p. (In Russ.)

Evstratov A. E. Some aspect of implementation of the analogy institute in the right: theory and practice. Vestnik Omskogo universiteta. Seriya “Pravo”, 2018, no. 2, pp. 29—32. (In Russ.)

Kononenko V. I. Analogy in Criminal Proceedings. Rossiyskoe pravosudie, 2018, no. 12, pp. 89—95. (In Russ.)

Luparev E. B. The general theory of public relations. Yuridicheskiy vestnik Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2011, no. 1, pp. 23—27. (In Russ.)

Mikryukov V. A. Limits of Analogy in the Mechanism of Liability for Shareholder Agreement Violation. Grazhdanskoe pravo, 2018, no. 1, pp. 15—17. (In Russ.)

Monuments of Roman law: the laws of XII tables. Guy Institutions. Justinian Digest. Moscow, 1997. 608 p. (In Russ.)

Polyakov D. N. General Modes of Gaps Overcoming in Civil Law. Vestnik Omskoy yuridicheskoy akademii, 2014, no. 2 (23), pp. 52—55. (In Russ.)

Regel'sberger F. General Doctrine of Law. Ed. by Yu. S. Gambarov. Moscow, 1897. 293 p. (In Russ.)

Rekhtina I. V. Analogy in civil and arbitration proceedings: problems of theory and practice of application. Sovremennoe pravo, 2009, no. 11, pp. 102—106. (In Russ.)

■ ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL LAW

Legal Regulation of the Preferential Tax Regimes

K. V. ANDRIEVSKII

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: k.andrievskii@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.011

Abstract
Analysis of the content of preferential tax regimes suggests the presence of special features that characterize a certain category of persons or territories. In this case, it is necessary to analyze the problem of the content of regime regulation of tax exemptions, to find out the relationship and mediation of the tax obligation and the tax benefit.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the preferences of certain categories of taxpayers both on the duty to pay tax and on the duty of tax accounting and tax reporting. The objectives of the study are to assess the content of the tax benefit, its focus on the establishment of preferential regimes for taxpayers, excluding the possibility of providing individual benefits to individual taxpayers. Describing preferential tax regimes, it is important to consider them depending on the powers of the participants of tax relations, through the implementation of which there is a duty to pay tax. It is important to take into account a certain overlap of competencies. If we are talking about granting exemptions for Federal taxes and duties, in this case, the emergence of a preferential tax regime is associated exclusively with the powers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. At the same time, as for special preferential tax regimes at the level of regional or local taxes, the ratio of competences in this case is absolutely logical.
The analysis of the problem and the solution of the research tasks are based on the use of a set of general and special methods of scientific knowledge.
Preferential tax regimes presuppose the existence of special features that characterize a certain category of persons or territories. Assessing the content of the tax benefit, it is important to keep in mind its focus on a certain category of taxpayers, excluding the possibility of providing individual benefits to individual taxpayers. The tax benefit may provide preferences to certain categories of payers not only on the duty to pay tax, but also on the duty of tax accounting and tax reporting. The use of tax benefits is not the responsibility of the taxpayer, but is implemented by his will regarding the use of tax exemption or refusal thereof. It is absolutely logical and consistent to link preferential tax regimes with such powers of participants of tax legal relations, through the implementation of which there is a duty to pay tax.

Keywords
tax regime, tax obligation, tax benefit, tax preferences, elements of taxation, regional and local taxes and fees, powers to impose taxes and fees, principles of taxation.

For citation
Andrievskii K. V. Legal Regulation of the Preferential Tax Regimes. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 147—158. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.011 (In Russ.)

References

Bayazitova D. V. Contents and Classification of Tax Privileges and Tax Preferences. Vestnik Saratovskogo gosudarstvennogo sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo universiteta, 2015, no. 1 (55), pp. 82—87. (In Russ.)

Belisova A. V. Concept, Signs of Tax Privileges. Molodoy uchenyy, 2016, no. 11, pp. 1241—1243. (In Russ.)

Berezin M. Yu. Regional and Local Taxes: Legal Problems and Economic Reference Points. Moscow, 2006. 640 p. (In Russ.)

Denisaev M. A. Tax Relations with Participation of the Foreign Organizations in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2005. 144 p. (In Russ.)

Kartashov A. V. Tax Law: Short Course of Lectures. Ed. by E. Yu. Gracheva. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2013. 211 p. (In Russ.)

Kucherov I. I. Tax Law of Russia: Course of Lectures. Moscow, 2001. 360 p. (In Russ.)

Lipatova I. V. To a Question of Tax Privileges and Preferences as the Tax Expenditure Budget. Nauchnyy al'manakh, 2016, no. 7-1 (21), pp. 111—115. (In Russ.)

Minaeva M. O. To a Question of the Principles of the Taxation. Nauka i obshchestvo, 2014, no. 1 (16), pp. 48—51. (In Russ.)

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Tikhomirov Yu. A. Legal Regulation: Theory and Practice. Moscow, 2010. 400 p. (In Russ.)

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■ SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF COUNTERING CORRUPTION

Dismissal of Civil Servants Due to Loss of Trust: Problems of Theory and Practice

V. I. KUZNETSOV, Yu. V. TRUNTSEVSKIY, L. A. LOMAKINA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: kuznetsov_v_i@mail.ru; trunzev@yandex.ru; lomakina_la@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.012

Abstract
The incorporation of a set of rules on termination of an employment contract with an employee due to loss of confidence by the employer and its transformation into the maximum measure of disciplinary responsibility for committing corruption offenses, for which disciplinary penalties are provided, is designed to expand the number of anti-corruption legal means in the public service. The response to the application of this measure of legal influence was the increase in the number of appeals to the courts. The practice of resolving court cases shows that the protection of the interests of a civil servant in situations involving the dismissal of a civil servant on anti-corruption grounds is not sufficiently clear.
The purpose of the study is to identify in the regulation of relations arising from the application of anti-corruption measures, areas of improvement of the practice of applying disciplinary punishment against civil servants-dismissal of a civil servant in connection with loss of trust. The aim of the study was to analyze the results of law enforcement practice challenging the dismissal of civil servants for committing corruption offenses.
The use of general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis in the knowledge of legal phenomena is due to the specifics of legal relations arising from the impact on the behavior of civil servants of disciplinary measures related to their dismissal.
The article presents the results of the analysis of law enforcement practice, considers the problems of theoretical character arising as a result of the incorporation of norms of labor law to legislation on civil service and transformation the termination of the employment contract in connection with loss of trust of the head civil servant in the maximum measure of disciplinary responsibility for corruption offenses and given a disciplinary sanction. Also the revealed reasons of recognition by courts illegal of orders on dismissal in connection with loss of trust illegal are specified. The work done has shown the lack of uniformity in approaches to the understanding of service discipline, leading to the possibility of improper application of the norms of disciplinary responsibility for the Commission of corruption offenses by civil servants.

Keywords
anti-corruption restrictions and prohibitions, civil servant, civil service, disciplinary responsibility, disciplinary punishment, disciplinary misconduct, types of disciplinary sanctions, conflict of interest, regime, dismissal, loss of trust.

For citation
Kuznetsov V. I., Truntsevskiy Yu. V., Lomakina L. A. Dismissal of Civil Servants Due to Loss of Trust: Problems of Theory and Practice. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 159—169. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.012 (In Russ.)

References

Alekseev S. S. General theory of law. Vol. 1. Moscow, 1981. 360 p. (In Russ.)

Chikanova L. A. Legal nature of prohibitions and restrictions established by the Labor Code of the Russian Federation for certain categories of workers. Khozyaystvo i pravo, 2016, no. 4, pp. 3—11. (In Russ.)

Krasnov Yu. K., Nadvikova V. V., Shkatulla V. I. Legal Technique. Moscow, 2014. 536 p. (In Russ.)

Mezhenina O. V. The problem of legal regulation of the dismissal of a civil servant in connection with the loss of confidence. Available at: https://novainfo.ru/article/9904. (In Russ.)

Trust in a penny. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2016, May 10, no. 6967 (99).

■ REVIEWS

Review of the Monograph “The Digitalization of Law-Making: The Search for New Solutions” (D. A. Pashentsev, M. V. Zaloilo, O. A. Ivanyuk, A. A. Golovina; ed. by D. A. Pashentsev. Moscow, 2019. 234 р.)  Pdf 16

A. A. DORSKAYA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

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