Contents of issue # 5/2019

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Social Behavior and Law

Yu. A. TIKHOMIROV

deputy head of the Public law research centre of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor, honored scientist of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: office2@izak.ru

Modern society is a complex social organism with its goals, components and order of interaction. The behavior of people “animates” all processes and actions in society, and this gives special relevance to the analysis of the dynamics of behavior in the focus of law. The research allows to overcome the steady view of the right as a “set of legal texts”, to reveal its powerful behavioral potential and to actively use the human factor for the effectiveness of legal regulation.
The article deals with the use of the legal mechanism of regulation of individual behavior and social and legal roles, institutional, corporate and mass behavior. Much attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of interests, motives and emotions of people on their attitudes to public institutions and legislation. Theoretical assessment and conclusions are combined with the justification of scientific and practical recommendations.

Keywords: law, behavior, authority, lawful behavior, institutions and organs of the state, interests, motives.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_1


REFERENCES

Bogdanov A. A. Tektologiya: vseobshchaya organizatsionnaya nauka. 3rd ed. Moscow, 1989. Available at: http://gtmarket.ru/laboratory/basis/5909.

Erlikh O. Osnovopolozhenie sotsiologii prava. Ed. by V. G. Grafskiy, Yu. I. Grevtsov. St. Petersburg, 2011. 704 p.

Glazyrin V. V. Soglasovannost tseley i sredstv pravovogo vozdeystviya kak uslovie ego effektivnosti. Problemy sovershenstvovaniya sovetskogo zakonodatelstva. Trudy. 1985. Iss. 30.

Gorshkov M. K. Rossiyskoe obshchestvo v kontekste novoy realnosti. Moscow, 2017.

Ivanov D. V. Kniga Levit Vetkhoga. Zavety kak istochnik sovremennogo administrativnogo prava. Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2019, no. 1.

Ivanova L. F. Sovremennye problemy yuridicheskoy psikhologii kak nauchnoy spetsialnosti i uchebnoy distsipliny. Vestnik Yuzhno-Uralskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Seriya: Pravo, 2017, no. 4.

Kazimirchuk V. P., Kudryavtsev V. N. Sovremennaya sotsiologiya prava. Moscow, 1995. 297 p.

Kornev V. N. Pravo kak element sistemy pravovogo regulirovaniya obshchestvennykh otnosheniy. Rossiyskoe pravosudie, 2019, no. 1.

Lobanova T. N. Trudovye interesy (psikhologicheskie aspekty). Moscow, 2018.

Nikitinskiy V. I., Samoshchenko I. S. Nekotorye problemy metodologii izucheniya effektivnosti pravovykh norm. Problemy sotsiologii prava, 1970, iss. 1.

Petrazhitskiy L. I. Teoriya i politika prava. Izbrannye trudy. Ed. by Ye. V. Timoshina. St. Petersburg, 2011. 1031 p.

Pravovoe prostranstvo i chelovek. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, Ye. V. Pulyaeva, N. I. Khludeneva. Moscow, 2012. 240 p.

Pravovoe prostranstvo: granitsy i dinamika. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2018.

Sorokin P. A. Sistema sotsiologii. Moscow, 2008. 1003 p.

Sorokotyagin I. N. Psikhologiya yurisprudentsii kak samostoyatelnaya distsiplina. Psikhopedagogika v pravookhranitelnykh organakh, 2005, no. 1.

Taler R. Novaya povedencheskaya ekonomika. Pochemu lyudi narushayut pravila traditsionnoy ekonomiki i kak na etom zarabotat. Moscow, 2018.

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Yuridicheskoe prognozirovanie. Moscow, 2018.

Tsomartova F. V., Nanba S. B. The Human in the Focus of Law and Psychology. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 4. (In Russ.)

Veber M. Khozyaystvo i obshchestvo: ocherki ponimayushchey sotsiologii. Pravo. Ed. by L. G. Nonina. Moscow, 2018. 336 p.

■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

The Evolution of Elections in Russia in the Context of Implementation of Constitutional Principles

A. E. POSTNIKOV

head of the Department of constitutional law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: const@izak.ru

Against the background of formal stability in the constitutional regulation of elections, the fundamental provisions of the electoral legislation and the practice of its implementation, including the regulation of eligibility to vote, have changed significantly. The immutability of the constitutional provisions of the Constitution to such an extent did not provide the necessary continuity in the development of constitutional principles. The shift in approaches to legal regulation affected both the requirements for eligibility to vote and the differentiation of its regulation between the Russian Federation and the constituent entity of the Russian Federation. At the same time, both legislation and law enforcement practice have been searching for new approaches to the implementation of international electoral standards, which does not always have a positive impact on the level of legal protection of electioneerers.
The “municipal filter” applied at elections of the highest officials of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation is considered as an administrative barrier completely excluding the involvement of voters. Specified requirements for the electioneerers may be introduced by the legislator, but these requirements should be such of nature that the candidates and electoral associations, relying on the support of a certain part of the electorate, should have the opportunity to participate in the elections without any discretion of the authorities.
The author proposes the conceptual model of possible amendments to Constitution of the Russian Federation concerning the regulation of the electoral system. Taking into account the Constitution's framework, the inclusion of separate chapter is the best option for such amendments. In addition to the comprehensive regulation of the key elements of all electoral processes, including the formation and activity of election commissions, the Constitution should be amended by adding the provision on the impermissibility of the participation of public authorities in the nomination of candidates and lists of candidates as well as administrative support. Consistent consolidation of this requirement in the legislation will serve the continuous implementation of the principle of free elections.

Keywords: elections, electoral rights, eligibility to vote, electoral system, municipal filter, electoral qualifications, Constitution, Constitutional Court.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_2


REFERENCES

Ivanchenko A. V. Izbiratelnye komissii v Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Istoriya. Teoriya. Praktika. Moscow, 1996.

Lysenko V. I. Nekotorye problemy razvitiya rossiyskogo izbiratelnogo prava. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1995, no. 8.

Nauchnye kontseptsii razvitiya rossiyskogo zakonodatelstva. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, Yu. A. Tikhomirov. 7th ed. Moscow, 2015.

Postnikov A. E. Constitutional Principles and Constitutional Practice. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2008, no. 12. (In Russ.)

Postnikov A. E. Izbiratelnoe pravo kak podotrasl rossiyskogo konstitutsionnogo prava. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2012, no. 4.

Rumyantsev O. G. Konstitutsiya Devyanosto tretego. Istoriya yavleniya. Moscow, 2018.

Shakhray S. M. Chetvert veka Konstitutsii Rossii: dolgie leta! Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii. K 25-letiyu prinyatiya Osnovnogo zakona. Moscow, 2018.

Zorkin V. D. Konstitutsionno-pravovoe razvitie Rossii. Moscow, 2019.

Constitutional and Legal Status of Persons not Belonging to the Indigenous Peoples of Russia, but Permanently Residing in the Places of Their Traditional Residence and Traditional Economic Activity

I. V. IRKHIN

doctoral candidate at the Department of state (constitutional) law of the South Federal University, candidate of legal sciences
88, Maksim Gorkiy st., Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 344000
E-mail: dissertacia@yandex.ru

In the present article the problems of correlation of constitutional and legal categories “indigenous small peoples”, “small ethnic communities” and “national minorities” are designated. It is emphasized that a distinctive feature of the legal status of indigenous peoples of relatively small ethnic communities and national minorities is the residence on the ancestral lands, the presence of a special cultural, spiritual and hereditary connection with them. There are three main approaches to the identification of persons who are not indigenous peoples, but permanently residing in their places of traditional residence and traditional economic activity: 1) national-territorial; 2) territorial; 3) mixed. In the structure of the legal status of persons not belonging to indigenous minorities, but permanently residing in the places of their traditional residence and traditional economic activities, it is proposed to allocate old-timers and persons who have blood relations with representatives of indigenous minorities or who are married to them. The first category includes persons not belonging to small peoples, but permanently and permanently residing in their traditional places of residence, and engaged in traditional economic activities. The second category includes persons who do not belong to small peoples, who are permanently residing in the places of traditional residence and economic activities of indigenous small peoples, and who have a blood relationship with them, or who are married to them.
The expediency of equating (under different conditions) to the legal status of indigenous minorities the legal status of old-timers and persons permanently residing in the places of traditional residence and economic activity of indigenous minorities, and having with them a blood relationship, or married to them is substantiated. The conclusion is made that the implementation of this approach contributes to the preservation of the ancestral traditions and the development of a multi-faceted extensive unique cultural heritage of these peoples.

Keywords: legal status, indigenous peoples, small ethnic communities, national minorities, oldtimers, blood relatives, spouses, guarantees.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_3


REFERENCES

Andrichenko L. V., Postnikov A. E. The problems of separation of legislative powers in the field of protection of the original habitat and the traditional way of life of the small-numbered indigenous peoples of Russia. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2008, no. 5, pp. 28—37. (In Russ.)

Garipov R. Sh. The concept of “indigenous people” and their status in international and domestic law. Mezhdunarodnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnye organizatsii, 2013, no. 3, pp. 408—420. (In Russ.)

Indigenous Peoples — Lands, Territories and Natural Resources (United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues). Available at: www.un.org/en/events/indigenousday/pdf/Backgrounder _LTNR-FINAL.pdf (accessed 05.10.2018).

Konstitutsionnoe pravo: universitetskiy kurs [Constitutional law: university course]. Ed. by A. I. Kazannik, A. N. Kostyukov. Moscow, 2015. Vol. 2. 528 p. (In Russ.)

Kryazhkov V. A. Constitutional-law statuses of the Finno-Ugric peoples in the Russian Federation. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipalnoe pravo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 24—32. (In Russ.)

Kryazhkov V. A. Determination of the status of the Crimean-Tatar people in the Russian Federation. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipalnoe pravo, 2014, no. 9, pp. 48—52. (In Russ.)

Kryazhkov V. A. The small-numbered indigenous peoples of the North in Russia. Moscow, 2010. 560 p. (In Russ.)

Krylov B. S. Problems of protection of the rights of national minorities in the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2001, no. 8, pp. 17—25. (In Russ.)

Zadorin M. Yu. The constitutional right of indigenous peoples to develop. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2015. 22 p. (In Russ.)

■ CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS LAW

Contracts in Public Law: The Role of Contract Regulation of Property Relations

N. G. DORONINA, N. G. SEMILYUTINA

N. G. DORONINA, chief research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: gis.doronina@yandex.ru

N. G. SEMILYUTINA, head of the Department of civil law of foreign countries of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: foreign3@izak.ru

The subject matter of the present article is the analysis of the regulative function of a contract. Authors concentrate on the contractual forms used by the parties for the purposes of capital accumulation for the social and economic development. Authors analyze various forms used for the capital attraction for the economic and social development. As a result of their analysis authors conclude that a state uses various methods to fulfill its regulative function. It can participate in contract indirectly as a part to a contract, or it can use indirect forms affecting party autonomy in contracts concluded in financial markets providing for various forms of contracts as well as by means of requirements and normatives for market transactions. Notwithstanding of the forms chosen by the state it continues to fulfill its regulative function by means of contracts. This makes authors to notice the similarities between the system of economic contracts used in centrally planned economy and present system of contracts concluded by the parties in the market economy.

Keywords: contract, economic contract, concession, investments, financial market.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_4


REFERENCES

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Doronina N. G. Kontsessionnyy dogovor v mezhdunarodnom chastnom prave. Otdelnye vidy obyazatelstv v mezhdunarodnom chastnom prave. Moscow, 2008.

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Kozyrin A. N. Finansirovanie eksporta obrazovatelnykh uslug v Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Reformy i pravo, 2010, no. 3.

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Peres K. Tekhnologicheskie revolyutsii i finansovyy kapital. Dinamika puzyrey i periodov protsvetaniya. Moscow, 2013.

Pravo i innovatsionnaya deyatelnost. Moscow, 2011.

Semilyutina N. G. Ponyatie “reguliruemyy rynok” i problemy mezhdunarodnogo kommercheskogo arbitrazha. Mezhdunarodnyy kommercheskiy arbitrazh: sovremennye problemy i resheniya: sbornik statey k 75-letiyu Mezhdunarodnogo kommercheskogo arbitrazhnogo suda pri TPP RF. Ed. by A. S. Komarov. Moscow, 2007.

Sosna S. A. Kontsessionnye soglasheniya. Teoriya i praktika. Moscow, 2002.

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Pravo: prognozy i riski. Moscow, 2015.

Objects of Copyright on the Human Body and Problems of Their Use

M. N. MALEINA

professor at the Department of civil law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University, doctor of legal sciences, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation
9, Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 123995
E-mail: aspirantstudent@yandex.ru

The author qualifies complex make-up, original (without using a stencil) tattoos, body painting as works of fine art. If make-up includes plastic image overlays, wigs and other wig-making products and cosmetics, there is a new object of copyright (a work of art) which is embodied in the form of images and in three-dimensional form.
There are three independent objects of copyright: a) a sketch of tattoo, complex make-up, body painting on paper or in a computer graphics programs; b) images themselves on the body; c) their photos. An image can be created without a sketch or with a sketch taken as a basis, but in accordance with the wishes of the customer, certain parts of the body are “played around” in the process of activity and a new original drawing is created. The last is a separate object of copyright.
It is proved that along with the legal features of the object of copyright (the creative nature of creation and objective form of expression), it is necessary to recognize and consolidate in the law such special features of objects on the human body as an indissoluble connection with the human body, a limited period of existence, image safety for life and health.
The human body during the life does not become a thing regardless of the method of use. In the life of the person himself decides to use his body in the exercise of the right to physical integrity, and if a person decides to change only the appearance, then the person realizes the right to an individual appearance.

Keywords: copyright, result of intellectual activity, object of copyright, intellectual property, product of the fine arts, make-up, tattoo, body painting, body art, human body, make-up artist, artist, right to individual appearance, right to physical inviolability, personal non-property rights.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_5


REFERENCES

Bogdanova O. V. Protection of intellectual copyright by civil law ways. Moscow, 2017. 212 p. (In Russ.)

Gorlenko S. A., Kalyatin V. O., Kiriy L. L. et al. Commentary on the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (part four). Ed. by L. A. Trakhtengerts. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Moscow, 2016. 485 p. (In Russ.)

Maleina M. N. The Right of a Citizen to Individual Image. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1990, no. 11, pp. 134—138. (In Russ.)

Maleina M. N. The status of organs, tissues, human body as objects of property rights and the right to physical integrity. Zakonodatelstvo, 2003, no. 11, pp. 13—20. (In Russ.)

Russian women often choose Avon and Oriflame cosmetics. Available at: http://www.sostav.ru/news/2007/03/05/9issl/. (In Russ.)

Tattoos were an obstacle for painless childbirth. Moskovskiy komsomolets, 2017, February 3. (In Russ.)

Vitko V. S. On attributes of “plagiarism” in copyright law. Moscow, 2017. 142 p. (In Russ.)

Vitko V. S. On notion of original work. Intellektualnaya sobstvennost. Avtorskoe pravo i smezhnye prava. 2018, no. 2, pp. 21—32. (In Russ.)

Yanenko O. K. The legal regime of works of visual art created on the human body. Patenty i litsenzii. Intellektualnye prava, 2017, no. 3, pp. 39—44. (In Russ.)

Increase of Insured Risk Within the Insurance Contract Period: Legal Consequences (Comparative Legal Research)

M. V. KRATENKO

associate professor at the Department of civil law of the Siberian Federal University, candidate of legal sciences
79, Svobodnyy ave., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660041
E-mail: maxkrat@yandex.ru

The subject of the study is the legal relationship between the insured and the insurer concerning the increase in insurance risk within the contract period. According to the Article 959 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation the policy holder (beneficiary) must notify the insurer about a significant change in the circumstances leading to an increase in the insurance risk. However a number of related issues are not resolved: recording the policy holder's (beneficiary's) fault in the risk aggravation; the policy holder's obligation to make insurance payments for the loss occurred within the period after the increase in the insurance risk. Gaps in the regulation lead to the fact that all adverse changes in the conditions of the insured property's exploitation, or due to the behavior of the insured person are transferred by the insurer to the category of “non-insured” cases, that is, it excludes the insurance payment in advance. This practice of insurance companies is formally based on the freedom of contract principle (Art. 421 of the Civil Code), but ultimately leads to a violation of the legitimate interests of consumers in the insurance services market.
In order to solve this problem, the author refers to the experience of foreign countries (Germany, Canada) and the unified law of the European Union that regulates issues regarding the increase of insured risk during the period when the insurance contract is in force. By means of the comparative analysis a number of aspects in actions taken by the policy holder and the insurer, which are also subject to regulation, are allocated, including those taken with the use of dispositive action (for example, providing to the insurer the opportunity to choose when the insurance risk increases — to demand surcharge of the insurance premium, to reduce the volume of insurance coverage or to terminate the contract).
According to the results of the study, the author formulates proposals for amendments and additions to the Article 959 of the Civil Code on the consequences of the increased insurance risk: in terms of indicating the presence/absence of the insurer's obligation to make an insurance payment for the loss that occurred in the period after the increase in insurance risk; in terms of establishing the period for the insurer to exercise the right to terminate the contract; in terms of determining the legal consequences of termination of the insurance contract at the request of the policy holder, if he does not agree to the additional payment of the insurance premium; in terms of establishing guarantees for the policyholder to receive the insurance payment if the increase in risk was insignificant, or was not the direct cause of the insured event. The author also raises the question of differentiated regulation of consequences depending on the fault of the insured (beneficiary) in aggravation of insurance risk.

Keywords: the increase of the insured risk, the significant change in the circumstances, the object of insurance, disclosure of information, object of insurance, insurance rules, insurance coverage, contract termination, contract invalidity, refusal of insurance payment.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_6


REFERENCES

Arkhipova A. G. Principles of European Insurance Contract Law. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2014, no. 4, pp. 221—256. (In Russ.)

Arkhipova A. G. The doctrine of uberrima fides and its application in Russian insurance law. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2015, no. 4, pp. 7—35. (In Russ.)

Fogelson Yu. B. Insurance law: theoretical basis and practical application. Moscow, 2012. 576 p. (In Russ.)

Khudyakov A. I. The theory of insurance. Moscow, 2010. 656 p. (In Russ.)

Korneeva O. V., Lysenko T. I., Tanaga A. N et al. Comment to Chapter 48 “Insurance” of the Civil code of Russian Federation (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”). 2017. (In Russ.)

Kratenko M. V. Accidents Not Insured under Hull Insurance: On Issue of Measures of Consumer's Right Protection. Rossiyskoe pravosudie, 2015, no. 2, pp. 38—50. (In Russ.)

Kratenko M. V. Hydraulic shock of engine: continuing the theme of “non-contributory” cases under the casco contract. Pravo i ekonomika, 2016, no. 1, pp. 51—58. (In Russ.)

Yermakova T. G., Dedikov S. V. Tipical drawbacks in standard insurance rules. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2010, no. 5, pp. 60—68. (In Russ.)

■ LABOR LAW AND SOCIAL SECURITY LAW

Socio-Economic and Legal Bases of Reforming Pension Systems

M. B. NAPSO

professor at the North-Caucasian State Humanitarian and Technological Academy,
doctor of legal sciences
36, Stavropolskaya st., Cherkessk, Russia, 369000
E-mail: ncshta@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of economic-legal preconditions and consequences of reforming a pension system of the Russian Federation. The problem has a special urgency as the question of implementing constitutional rights of Russian citizens to retirement benefits that is in direct dependence on realization of other constitutional rights, in particular, rights to work.
To that end the author aims to show efficiency and correctness of the performed and performing pension reforms. Among tasks set, except studying of preconditions, the maintenance and results of reforms, there are also: 1) revealing intrinsic problems of pension system and their ultimate solutions; 2) considering the issue from both insured rights protection perspective and adherence to the principle of compulsory pension insurance scheme; 3) studying of perspectives of different options for reforming pension system.
The principles of complexity, integrity, systematicity and objectivity are a methodological basis of the article.
As a result of research the author comes to the conclusion that the choice of options to reform should be based on revealing of system, intrinsic problems of the Russian economy, the pension system and social security sphere themselves. The second most important conclusion is an inadmissibility of distorting the principles, initially rooted in the pension fund system, diminishing the rights of insured and decreasing the level of insuring their realisations. The observed slowing down of the state's position inevitably leads to mass infringement of the of the insured retirees' rights. The author is convinced that the enhanced responsibility of the state is absolutely lawful due to the fact, that the social security system is urged to provide realisation of constitutional rights of citizens and has a public character.

Keywords: pension reform, non-contributory pension, insured, obligations to perform premium payment, administering premium payments, pension insurance record, seniority, individual character pension calculation, funded pension, obligatoriness principle, principle of voluntariness.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_7


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The Legal Grounds of Minimum Legal Drinking Age

O. O. SALAGAY, K. V. SOSHKINA

O. O. SALAGAY, deputy Minister of health of the Russian Federation, candidate of medical sciences
3, Rakhmanovskiy lane, Moscow, Russia, 127994
E-mail: salagayoo@rosminzdrav.ru

K. V. SOSHKINA, head of the Department of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation
3, Rakhmanovskiy lane, Moscow, Russia, 127994
E-mail: soshkinakv@rosminzdrav.ru

The purpose of this article is to analyze the legal aspects of establishing and possible raising the age-limit for the sale of alcohol. This article analyzes the legal grounds relating to the age restriction for an alcohol purchase legal perspective, legislation of foreign countries and the Russian Federation, the court opinion and current judicial practice to allow increasing the minimum legal drinking age.
The authors come to the conclusion that the Constitution of the Russian Federation and other regulatory acts of the Russian Federation do not prevent the age restrictions for purchasing alcohol other than the age of majority.

Keywords: minimum legal drinking age, alcohol, age limit, deal requirements, contract of sale, legal capability.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_8


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Manankova R. P. Explanatory note to the concept of the draft of the new Family Code of the Russian Federation. Introduction. Semeynoe i zhilishchnoe pravo, 2012, no. 4, pp. 26—42. (In Russ.)

Patyulin V. A. The State and individual in the Soviet Union. Legal aspects of the relationship. Moscow, 1974. 246 p. (In Russ.)

Salagay O. O., Soshkina K. V. Medical justification for increasing the minimum legal drinking age. Profilakticheskaya Meditsina, 2018, vol. 21, no. 5. (In Russ.)

Squeglia L. M., Jacobus J., Tapert S. F. The effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structures and systems. Handbook of clinical neurology, 2014, vol. 125, pp. 501—510.

Taurovaara R. Unofficial translation. P. 28. Available at: https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1994/en19941143_20140152.pdf

■ CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY

Unlawful Impact on Critical Information Infrastructure: The Criminal Liability of Its Owners and Operators

Yu. V. TRUNTSEVSKY

leading research fellow of the Department of methodology of combating
corruption of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: trunzev@yandex.ru

Federal Law of July 26, 2017 No. 194-FZ “On Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and the Article 151 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the adoption of the Federal Law “On the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure of the Russian Federation” introduced a new article — 274 “Irregular impact on the critical information infrastructure of the Russian Federation”, which describes criminal threats to objects of critical information infrastructure, in parts 3, 4 and 5, i.e. the grounds of criminal responsibility of its owners and operators.
Methodology: dialectics, hermeneutics, synergy, philosophical conceptology.
The disposition of the Article 274 Part 3 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation includes unlawful acts, both in the form of active action and inaction regarding compliance with operating rules and violation of the rules for access to critical information infrastructure objects of the Russian Federation. An obligatory sign of the component elements of the considered crimes is the occurrence of socially dangerous consequences: harm to the critical information infrastructure (part 3 and 4) and grave consequences that are important for the safety of this infrastructure (part 5). The subject (performer) of this crime is a special one (the owner / operator of the critical information infrastructure) who has access to the critical information infrastructure or objects related to it due to the fulfillment of his/her official powers and is obliged to fulfill the established rules of operation and access to them.
The article contains recommendations on the qualification of the relevant offenses.

Keywords: critical information infrastructure, security, criminal liability, socially dangerous consequences, qualification of crimes.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_9


REFERENCES

Cheremisinova M. Ye. About formation of security system of critical information infrastructure of the Russian Federation. Available at: http://comitasgentium.com/ru/oformirovanii-sistemy-obespecheniya-b/. (In Russ.)

Guidelines for the implementation of prosecutorial supervision over the implementation of laws in the investigation of crimes in the field of computer information. Available at: https://genproc.gov.ru/documents/nauka/execution/ document-104550/. (In Russ.)

Kapustin A. Ya. The question of the international legal concept of threats to international information security. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2017, no. 6, pp. 44—55. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Law Facing the Challenges of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 9, pp. 5—16. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. (In Russ.)

Shuvalov I. I., Khabrieva T. Y., Tszinzhu Fen et al. Cyberspace BRICS: legal dimension. Ed. by D. Ruypin, T. Y. Khabrieva, Zhun Fu, N. M. Bevelikova. Moscow, 2017. 336 p. (In Russ.)

Truntsevskiy Yu. V. Cybercrime in corporate sphere: risks, evaluation and measures of prevention. Rossiyskiy sledovatel, 2014, no. 21, pp. 19—22. (In Russ.)

Prospects and Main Directions of the Codification of the Criminal-Executive Legislation

Yu. A. GOLOVASTOVA

head of the Department of legal and liberal disciplines of the Ryazan branch of the Witte Moscow University, candidate of legal sciences
62, Pervomayskiy ave., Ryazan, Russia, 390013
E-mail: ugolovastova@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the theoretical and practical problems of the codification of the criminalexecutive legislation. The search for the main directions of improving the criminal-executive legislation is particularly relevant and significant in the light of the discussion of the need to develop a new Russian Criminal-Executive Code. With the aim of improvement of legal regulation of public relations arising from the execution of criminal punishments and other measures of criminal-legal character, application of corrective-preventive means effects to convicts, it is necessary to model the concept of improvement of the criminal-executive legislation at the present stage.
The purpose of the study is to identify the problems of law enforcement arising in the field of execution of criminal penalties and other measures of criminal law, the use of correctional and preventive measures to convicts, as well as to identify gaps and shortcomings of criminal-executive legislation that reduce the effectiveness of legal regulation. Objectives of the study are evaluation of the current criminalexecutive legislation (for example, the Criminal-Executive Code); the study of the leading scientists' opinions in the field of criminal-executive law on the status of the current Criminal-Executive Code; development of proposals to improve the existing criminal-executive legislation.
In the process of research general and special methods of scientific knowledge are used such as dialectical, formal-logical, functional, system-structural, comparative-legal, as well as methods of legal modeling and forecasting.
The article formulates specific proposals for updating the Criminal-Executive Code of the Russian Federation, highlights the important points that determine its structure and content. The author is convinced that the new Criminal-Executive Code should reflect modern views on the subject, the method of criminal-executive law, should eliminate gaps in the regulation of criminal-executive relations. Among the proposed novels, a special place is occupied by proposals related to the clarification of the goals of the criminal-executive legislation.

Keywords: criminal-executive law, the system of criminal-executive law, regulation of criminalexecutive law, gaps in the criminal-executive legislation, codification of the criminal-executive legislation, criminal-executive production.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_10


REFERENCES

Antonov T. G. Construction issues of correctional legislation standarts regulating the procedure of supervised release execution. Vestnik Kuzbasskogo instituta, 2016, no. 4, pp. 14—18. (In Russ.)

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■ LAND AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Hunting Areas: Ratio of Legal Regulation and Actual Situation

D. B. GOROKHOV, D. D. SHUNAEVA

D. B. GOROKHOV, leading research fellow of the Department of ecology and agricultural legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushlinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: julia7709@yandex.ru

D. D. SHUNAEVA, postgraduate student at the Department of ecology and agricultural legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushlinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: ddshunaeva@gmail.com

The term of “hunting areas” is the key in the system of legal regulation in the field of hunting and conservation of hunting resources. The legal concept of “hunting areas” is characterized by unjustified generality, which does not allow establishing its legal identity to the actual situation. This entails significant difficulties in regulating the sphere of hunting, use and protection of rich natural resources possessed by individual entrepreneurs and legal entities under the hunting industry agreement, and does not facilitate effective law enforcement.
In order to identify the actual composition of objects located in hunting areas, list of their possible using, the authors conducted a systematic comprehensive analysis of land, forest and water legislation, the wildlife legislation.
The discrepancy between the legal definition and the actual list of objects that may be in the hunting grounds was revealed. These are such objects as: land plots, forest land plots, and wildlife and nonhunting resource. On the territories of hunting areas can also be located water facilities and aquatic biological resources. The authors stated that natural resources located within the boundaries of hunting areas allow persons who have concluded a hunting agreement to carry out a wide range of activities that are not related to the field of hunting, since the provision of hunting areas is not legally provided for by the terms of their intended use. In fact, hunting areas occupy vast areas, including lands of special economic and strategic value, in particular, agricultural lands, territories used for defense and security purposes, which makes it necessary to raise the problem of the importance of hunting economy, the need to rationalize it and improve the efficiency of legal regulation. This problem is of particular relevance when considering in the context of the territorial socio-economic development of the Russian Federation.
The result of the analysis contains proposals to improve the legal regulation in the field of hunting and conservation of hunting resources and related areas.

Keywords: hunting, hunting areas, hunting economy, hunting agreement, use of natural resources, activity in the field of hunting economy, legal certainty.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_11


REFERENCES

Andreev M. N., Kraev N. V., Kraeva V. N. Regionalnaya gosudarstvennaya politika v sfere okhoty i okhotnichego khozyaystva. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2013, no. 4.

Anisimov A. P., Melnikov N. N. Systematic Structural Analysis of the Categories “Intended Purpose” and “Permitted Use” in Natural Resources Branches of Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 11. (In Russ.)

Glibko O. Ya. Problema dvoynoy arendy zemelnykh uchastkov v zakonodatelstve Rossii. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2015, no. 2.

Gorokhov D. B. Lasting Relations in the Sphere of Hunting: Problems of Improving the Federal Legal Regulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 10. (In Russ.)

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Iering R. Yuridicheskaya tekhnika. St. Petersburg, 1905.

Kazakova S. Vodnye obekty imeyut svoyu spetsifiku. Zhilishchnoe pravo, 2018, no. 1.

Narutto S. V. Opredelennost zakonodatelstva kak garantiya prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v konstitutsionno-sudebnoy doktrine. Lex Russica, 2018, no. 10.

Shunaeva D. D. Digital Economy and Information Support in Hunting: Institutional and Legal Aspects. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 1. (In Russ.)

Shunaeva D. D. Okhotnichi ugodya: sootnosheniya ponyatiy “de-yure” i “de-fakto”. Vektory razvitiya zakonodatelnogo obespecheniya gosudarstvennoy zemelnoy politiki: opyt XX veka i sovremennost: sbornik materialov mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Moscow, 2018.

Shupletsova Yu. I. Legal Problems of Realization of Rights on Forest Areas. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 12. (In Russ.)

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Vlasenko N. A. Razumnost i opredelennost v pravovom regulirovanii. Moscow, 2017.

Legal Issues of Land Use According to Their Designated Purpose

I. S. SHCHEPANSKIY

associate professor at the Department of Constitutional and administrative law of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, candidate of legal sciences
20, Myasnitskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 101000
E-mail: shchepanskiy@mail.ru

The designated purpose of land and land plots is one of its main characteristics, determining its value and possible ways of use. At the same time, Russian legislation and law enforcement practice is very ambiguous in its application, which is a problem for law enforcement.
The article analyzes the main approaches to the understanding of the Institute of land designated purpose in order to formulate proposals to improve the work of the domestic legislator and other lawyers of the Institute on the basis of the provisions of the current legislation, materials of judicial practice, explanations of the authorities and the provisions of the legal doctrine. The aim of this study is to consider the content of this legal institution and the problems associated with the implementation of the legal principle of land use in accordance with the established category and permitted by the current legislation use: in particular, the problem of the ratio of these legal institutions, the order of their definition and change by the authorities, the presence of discrepancies in the official documents of their establishing, as well as the problem of determining the scope of competent actions, which are entitled to exercise the right holder of land in accordance with the established legal regime.
The author uses the formal-legal (dogmatic) method of studying the problem.
Based on the study, general recommendations on the possible solution of a significant part of the identified problems are given.

Keywords: designated purpose of land, legal regime of land, permitted use, category of land, land law, urban planning legislation.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_12


REFERENCES

Anisimov A. P., Melnikov N. N. Systematic structural analysis of the categories “intended purpose” and “permitted use” in natural resources branches of law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 11, pp. 27—35. (In Russ.)

Barazgova R. S. Special purpose setting and setting use of lot lands: maintenance and correlation of concepts. Sovremennoe pravo, 2009, no. 6, pp. 50—53. (In Russ.)

Galinovskaya E. A. About directions of improvement of the designated categories and permitted use of land. Imushchestvennye otnosheniya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2012, no. 10, pp. 78—81. (In Russ.)

Kistanova Ye. Is it possible to build a house or a residential building on the land category “agricultural land”?. Zhilishchnoe pravo, 2017, no. 4, pp. 67—78. (In Russ.)

Kiteleva A. G. Approaches to formation classifier of permitted use. Imushchestvennye otnosheniya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2016, no. 9, pp. 102—106. (In Russ.)

Krassov O. I. Approved use and concrete purpose-oriented assignment of land plot. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2012, no. 2, pp. 16—21. (In Russ.)

Minina E. L. Permitted use of land plots: issues of establishment and modification. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2012, no. 1, pp. 62—67. (In Russ.)

Narysheva N. G. Transition from categorization of lands on the designated purpose basis to territorial zoning: Pro and contra. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 42—49. (In Russ.)

■ SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF COUNTERING CORRUPTION

On the Issue of the Place of Anti-Corruption Legislation in the System of Russian Legislation

A. A. GOLOVINA

senior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: aagolovina@mail.ru

A number of aspects of the scientific foundations of anti-corruption, which have a significant theoretical and legal component, are currently debatable, controversial, and have no established vision in the scientific literature. In particular, to those can be attributed the problems of the place of anti-corruption legislation in the system of Russian legislation. The answer to the question of how to call this subsystem of norms (the most frequently occurring names include “anti-corruption legislation of the Russian Federation” and “anti-corruption legislation in the Russian Federation”) is therefore uncertain, and therefore this area of research seems promising.
The aim of the study is a theoretical and legal view of the problem, since, in the author's opinion, the tasks of preventing and preventing corruption, the solution of which directly affects the quality of government, as well as many economic and social processes in modern Russia, require the development of not only legal frameworks and law enforcement practices in this field, but also doctrinal, theoretical conceptual foundations. The theory of state and law, designed to be an integrating, interdisciplinary platform for combining the cognitive potential of learning various phenomena of state and legal life, including the sectoral nature, cannot remain aloof from this process.
Using systematic legal, formal legal, dialectic and other research methods, the author identifies some conceptual problems in determining the place of anti-corruption legislation in the system of Russian legislation, relying, among other things, on materials from Soviet discussions on the legal system and the historical legacy of scientific schools Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation in the development of scientific concepts for the development of legislation.
According to the results of the study, the author comes to the conclusion that, taking into account the concept of the branch of legislation formulated in the theory of law, its characteristics and system properties; it is permissible to argue about the formation of such an integrated branch of legislation as anti-corruption legislation. At the same time, this issue needs to be fully discussed in the scientific community; the very idea of such isolation is in its conceptualization at the fundamental scientific level, given that the legislative system, unlike the legal system, is much more subject to the subjective factors of formation, including conventionalism in science and lawmaking.

Keywords: anti-corruption legislation, system of Russian legislation, branches of Russian legislation.

DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_13


REFERENCES

Ageshkina N. A., Belyanskaya A. B., Smushkin A. B. Commentary to the Federal Law of December 25, 2008 No. 273-FZ (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”). 2017. (In Russ.)

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Concepts of the development of Russian legislation. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2010. 731 p. (In Russ.)

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Dorskaya A. A., Chestnov I. L. Evolution of the Russian legal system: theoretical and historical legal approaches. St. Petersburg, 2010. 306 p. (In Russ.)

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Golovina A. A. Criteria for the formation of industries in the system of Russian law. Moscow, 2018. 256 p. (In Russ.)

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■ DISCUSSION

Banking Law, Transport Law and the Nomenclature of Law Scientific Specialties

E. Yu. GRACHEVA, N. A. VLASENKO

E. Yu. GRACHEVA, head of the Department of financial law, first vice-principal of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University, chairman of the Expert Council of the High Attestation Commission of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor

N. A. VLASENKO, chief research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, professor at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, expert of the High Attestation Commission of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, professor

The authors speculate on the outcome of the discussion on independence of banking and transportation law as areas of law, as well as the reflection of such independence in nomenclature for academic degrees in law.

■ LEGAL LIFE. CHRONICLE

Law and Statute in the Programmed Society (to the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Daniel Bell)

A. I. SIDORENKO, M. O. DOLOVA, Yu. E. IBRAGIMOVA

A. I. SIDORENKO, leading research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences

M. O. DOLOVA, senior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences

Yu. E. IBRAGIMOVA, junior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

This article provides an overview of the International scientific and practical conference "Law and Statute in the Programmed Society (to the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Daniel Bell)" (27—28 February 2019).

To the Memory of V. I. Vasiliev

Contents of issues:

2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997