Contents of issue # 11/2019

■ JUDICIARY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

Guarantees of Judicial Independence in the Russian Federation: Concept, History of Formation and Current State

V. M. LEBEDEV

Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, Moscow 121260, Russian Federation
E-mail: vsrf@vsrf.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.1

Abstract
The article deals with the principle of independence of the judiciary and guarantees of its implementation. Strengthening judicial independence is an important direction for improving legislation on the judicial system, judicial proceedings and the status of judges, in connection with which the doctrinal study of this legal institution becomes particularly relevant.
The objectives of the study include theoretical and legal justification of the principle of independence of judges, identification of various aspects of judicial independence and the conditions necessary for its practical implementation. Objectives of the study are to examine the content and historical evolution of judicial independence, the analysis of the modern safeguards of judicial independence provided by the legislation of the Russian Federation and prospects of further development of these guarantees.
Research methods: system-structural, formal-legal, comparative-legal, historical and statistical.
The results of the study indicate that the principle of independence of judges ensures the independence of the judiciary in the system of separation of powers, the administration of justice in accordance with the law and in the absence of any external pressure. The independence of judges is a constitutional principle in the Russian Federation, and the right to be tried by an independent court received international legal recognition. The study demonstrates a striking contrast between the current position of the judiciary in the state and society and the role played by the courts until the 1990s. The system of procedural, organizational, financial and social guarantees of judicial independence enshrined in the legislation, as well as the consistent and systematic work of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation to expand and strengthen these guarantees allow us to state that both the institutional independence of the judiciary and the personal independence of each judge are ensured in our state.

Keywords
independence of judges, separation of powers, judicial reform, legal guarantees, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.

For citation
Lebedev V. M. Guarantees of Judicial Independence in the Russian Federation: Concept, History of Formation and Current State. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 5—24. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.1

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Vas'kovskiy E. V. Kurs grazhdanskogo protsessa. Moscow, 2016.

■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

Information and Digital Space in the Constitutional Dimension: From the Practice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation

N. S. BONDAR

Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg 190000, Russian Federation
E-mail: ksrf@ksrf.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.2

Abstract
The modern century of new digital technologies fundamentally transform legal life of individual, society and state, generates not only new opportunities, but also threats to democracy and human rights, affects the very foundations of human existence in modern society. The emerging information and digital space objectively becomes a whole new sphere of legal, including constitutional, influence. Given the nature of such relations that have an extremely sophisticated, complex nature, combining public and private grounds and affecting the fundamental values of society and state, human and civil rights and freedoms, constitutional law has a special role in their settlement, and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation — in resolving essentially new contradictions and conflicts in information and digital sphere. In this regard, this article dedicates to doctrinal and practical problems of constitutionalization of information and digital sphere in the context of the legal impact of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the current legislation and decisions of the Constitutional Court on these relations. Special attention was given to the digital identification of the individual, the genesis of information and digital status of human and citizen, the constitutional foundation of the right to be forgotten as a guaranty of privacy and personal freedom in modern information conditions. On this basis it becomes possible to achieve the balance of constitutional values in the emerging information and digital sphere, minimizing the negative consequences of the impact of new technologies on the democratic institutions of modern constitutionalism.

Keywords
constitutional law, Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, digital space, authority, freedom, human rights.

For citation
Bondar N. S. Information and Digital Space in the Constitutional Dimension: From the Practice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 25—42. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.2

References

Andre Le Sueur. Robot Government: Automated Decision-making and its Implications for Parliament. Parliament: Legislation and Accountability. Oxford, 2016. P. 18.

Avak'yan S. A. The information space of knowledge, digital world and constitutional law. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2019, no 7, pp. 23—28. (In Russ.)

Bastick Z. Digital Limits of Government: The Failure of E-Democracy. Beyond Bureaucracy: Towards Sustainable Governance Informatisation. Springer International Publishing, 2017. Pp. 3—14.

Bondar' N. S. Judicial constitutionalism: doctrine and practice. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2016. 528 p. (In Russ.)

Danilov N. A. Social justice in the information society: the problem of digital equality. Informatsionnoe pravo, 2012, no. 2 (29), pp. 5—7. (In Russ.)

Devins C., Felin T., Kauffman S., Koppl R. The Law and Big Data. Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy, vol. 27, iss. 2, pp. 357—413.

Dobrolyubova E. I., Yuzhakov V. N., Efremov A. A., Klochkova E. N. et al. Digital future of public administration by results. Moscow, 2019. (In Russ.)

Gadzhiev G. A., Voynikanis E. A. Could robot be a legal subject? (in search of legal forms for digital economy regulation). Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki = Law. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2018, no. 4, pp. 24—48. (In Russ.)

Gracheva S. A., Cheremisinova M. E. Constitutional Enforcement of Digital Rights. Vestnik MGPU. Seriya: Yuridicheskie nauki, 2018, no. 4(32), pp. 56—70. (In Russ.)

Howes D. E-Legislation: Law-Making in the Digital Age. McGill Law Journal, 2001, vol. 47.

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Khabrieva T. Y. Law Facing the Challenges of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 9, pp. 5—16. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_9_1

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_1_7

Krylova M. S. Principles of personal data processing in the law of the European Union. Aktual'nye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2017, no. 10, pp. 253—257. (In Russ.)

Lessig L. Reading the Constitution in Cyberspace. Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=41681.

Mukhametshina E., Bocharova S. Electronic voting in the elections to the Moscow city Duma will be the occasion for litigation. Vedomosti, 2019, September 11. (In Russ.)

Nisnevich Yu. A. Electronic state. Voprosy politologii, 2011, no. 1(1), pp. 6—18. (In Russ.)

O'Hara Kieron. The Right to Be Forgotten: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. University of Southampton. The Digital Citizen, 2015.

Pestereva A. E-voting failed due to technical issues. Kommersant, 2019, September 11. (In Russ.)

Public administration and law. Review. World bank, 2017. (In Russ.)

Pushkarskaya A. The Constitutional court did not doubt the “right to be forgotten”. Kommersant, 2019, April 20, no. 71. (In Russ.)

PFR: “digital portrait” will appear in 80% of Russians by 2025. Available at: https://www.pnp.ru/social/pfr-cifrovoy-portret-poyavitsya-u-80-rossiyan-k-2025-godu.html. (In Russ.)

Safoklov Yu. “Big brother” in the Internet decision of the Federal constitutional court of Germany about so-called “computer fundamental right”. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2009, no. 5(72), pp. 144—156. (In Russ.)

Saurin A. A. Digitization as a law transforming factor. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2019, no. 8, pp. 26—31. (In Russ.)

Shabashev V. A., Shcherbakova L. N. Trends in digital equality/inequality in the modern world. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2016, no. 9, pp. 3—12. (In Russ.)

Shakhray S. M. “Digital” Constitution. The fate of the individual basic rights and freedoms in a total information society. Vestnik Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 2018, no. 12, vol. 88, pp. 1075—1082. (In Russ.)

Shcherbovich A. A. Carta of human rights and principles for the Internet in terms of the realization of social, economic and cultural rights. Moscow, 2016. (In Russ.)

Sokolova O. S. Personal Data Protection by means of Right to be Forgotten. Sovremennoe pravo, 2016, no. 9, pp. 69—72. (In Russ.)

Talapina E. V. Law and Digitalization: New Challenges and Prospects. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 2, pp. 5—17. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_2_1

The Russian project “Digital equality” became the winner of the competition WSIS Prizes-2018. Available at: http://d-russia.ru/rossijskij-proekt-tsifrovoe-ravenstvo-stalpobeditelem-konkursa-wsis-prizes-2018.html. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A., Golovina A. A., Plyugina I. V. et al. Legal Space: Boundaries and Dynamics. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2019. (In Russ.)

Zor'kin V. D. Law in the digital world. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2018, May 29, no. 7578(115). (In Russ.)

The Legal Framework for Genomic Research in the Russian Federation and Common Law Countries

E. V. ALIMOV, F. A. LESHCHENKOV

E. V. Alimov, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: const@izak.ru

F. A. Leshchenkov, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: const3@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.3

Abstract
The article deals with the legal regulation of the order of genomic research in the Russian Federation, as well as in the leading countries of the Anglo-Saxon legal system. In the United States, Great Britain and Canada there are generally similar approaches to understanding the genome of a living organism and carrying out genomic research. Great importance is attached to the self-regulation of these relations by the relevant medical and scientific institutions, and such information is usually open. However, each state has a specific legal regulation of these relations, which is reflected in the text of the article. Foreign countries in general are actively developing a system of normative legal acts regulating the implementation of genomic research. The experience of normative legal regulation of genomic research is analyzed on the example of leading common law countries. Thus, in the United States a number of statutes were adopted at the state level, regulating such issues as health insurance, privacy of personal information, prohibition of discrimination, newborn screening, as well as conducting certain types of clinical and scientific research in relation to genomic research. In the UK there are a number of regulations banning certain types of genomic research. In particular for research purposes editing of the human genome is prohibited if the edited genes can be inherited. In Canada the regulation of genomic research is seen through the lens of human rights legislation and involves the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of genetic research.
The regulation of genomic research in common law countries is not usually integrated into any single national consolidated act, which does not detract from their importance. All of these States have adopted codes of ethics and codes of conduct for genome researchers: Canada and the United Kingdom have a code of ethics for genetic counselors and the United States adopted a "Code of ethics" in 2006 by the American Society for Human Genetics.
Analysis of the foundations of legal regulation of genomic research in common law countries allowed to understand the specifics of regulation of these issues in the Anglo-Saxon legal system. The positive experience of regulatory regulation of genomic research in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom can be used to improve the regulatory framework of the Russian Federation in this area.

Keywords
common law countries, legal foundations, genetics, human genome, genomic research, human rights, genetic engineering.

For citation
Alimov E. V., Leshchenkov F. A. The Legal Framework for Genomic Research in the Russian Federation and Common Law Countries. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 43—57. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.3

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The Interrelation Between Traditional and New Forms of Citizens' Participation in the Local Self-Government

A. E. POMAZANSKIY

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: const@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.4

Abstract
The article is devoted to the interrelation between traditional and new forms of citizens' participation in the local self-government. It is emphasized that these democratic institutions are tackling the one of the main tasks of municipal reform — the nearing of the population to the local power. The article analyzes the content of various forms providing citizens' participation in the local self-government. The analysis of modern practice of legal regulation of citizens' participation in local self-government and its law-enforcement practice shows the lack of consistency in implementation of democratic standards of local self-government, which were originally laid down in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The author notes that the main problem of legal regulation is exclusion of the local population in decision on matters of local significance. This trend is most evident with regard to issues related to the territorial transformations on the local level. It is emphasized that the main potential for the development of new forms of citizens' participation in the local self-government is provided by using article 33 of the Federal law “On General Principles of Organization of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation”. It allows the constituent entities of the Russian Federation through its own legal regulation to take into account the features, conditions, as well as the existing traditions of local selfgovernment in certain territories. At the same time new forms of citizens' participation in the local self-government initially arising and becoming widespread on the regional and local levels, in case of deviation from the given principles of the organization of local self-government, are undergone to the necessary amendments on the federal level.

Keywords
local self-government, popular sovereignty, local authorities, participatory democracy, initiative budgeting.

For citation
Pomazanskiy A. E. The Interrelation Between Traditional and New Forms of Citizens' Participation in the Local Self-Government. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 58—68. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.4

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Fadeev V. I. Local Self-government in Russia: Historical Experience and Modern Practice of Legal Regulation. Lex Russica, 2014, no. 4, pp. 396—412. (In Russ.)

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Pomazanskiy A. E. The Implementation of the Law-Making Initiative on the Local Level. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 8, pp. 37—46. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_8_4

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Vasil'ev V. I. Again on the Territorial Levels of Local Self-Government. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 110—118. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_1_9

Vasil'ev V. I. Local Self-Government: History and the Modern Practice. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 3, pp. 5—15. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/7784

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Vasil'ev V. I., Postnikov A. E., Pomazanskiy A. E. The Development of Democratic Principles and Institutions at the Municipal Level: Legal Basis. Moscow, 2017. 288 p. (In Russ.)

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Legal Regulation of the Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the XVII — Early XX Century (on the Example of the Peoples of Siberia)

A. A. DORSKAYA

Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg 191186, Russian Federation
E-mail: adorskaya@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.5

Abstract
In the article in the framework of the implementation of the concept of missionary activity in 2007, based on the pre-revolutionary state and church experience, the significance of missionary activity in resolving state-political, legal and cultural issues is considered.
The aim of the study is to apply R. Horton's theory of conversion to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the legal consequences of the accession of representatives of indigenous peoples of Siberia to Orthodoxy in the imperial period.
The article uses the chronological method to establish the sequence of the adoption of legal acts regulating the missionary activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in Siberia. The descriptive method allowed to describe the positions of peoples and nationalities of Siberia in relation to missionary activity. The formal legal method was used in analyzing the content of Russian regulatory legal acts of the end of the 17th — early 20th century, on the basis of which missionary expeditions, organizations, etc. were created. The comparative legal method was used to trace the evolution of state legal approaches to missionary activity. The conclusion about the possibilities of applying the experience of pre-revolutionary Russia in the modern law-making process on the issues of freedom of conscience is made on the basis of the method of legal modeling.
As a result of applying R. Horton's theory of conversion to the historical-legal material, according to which, for the Siberian peoples, Orthodoxy was a way of moving to a higher order, it was concluded that, on the one hand, this was indeed the case, the nobility of “foreigners” for the further development and strengthening of their position, but on the other — constantly caused discontent of the local population, which, even after being baptized, in fact continued to perform pagan rituals.

Keywords
missionary activity, foreigners, the Holy Synod, the Russian Orthodox Church, the Orthodox mission, decrees, Siberian peoples.

For citation
Dorskaya A. A. Legal Regulation of the Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the XVII — Early XX Century (on the Example of the Peoples of Siberia). Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 69—79. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.5

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Konev Yu. M., Konev A. Yu., Kir'yanov D. V. Missionary Activity of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Dissemination of Literacy among the Indigenous Peoples of North-Western Siberia in the 18th – the First Half of the 19th Century. Orthodox Sources of Culture and Speech. Collection of Scientific Articles on the Materials of the 36th International Scientific Conference Dedicated to the Day of Slavic Writing and Culture, Memory of Saints Equal Apostle Kirill and Methodius, 1150th Anniversary of the Creation of Slavic Writing. Ed. by N. V. Labunets, E. N. Ertner. Tyumen', 2014. (In Russ.)

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The Concept of the Revival of Missionary Activity of the Russian Orthodox Church. Missionary Center named after Jeray Daniel Sysoyev "Call Everyone to Heaven". Available at: https://mission-center.com/missiya/34-materiali/13535-missiy-koncepciy (accessed 18.04.2019). (In Russ.)

Mavlyutova G. Sh. Missionary Activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in North-Western Siberia in the 19th and Early 20th Century. Cand. diss. Tyumen', 1999. Available at: http://www.dissercat.com/content/missionerskaya-deyatelnost-russkoi-pravoslavnoi-tserkvi-v-severozapadnoi-sibiri-v-xix-nacha#ixzz5RTGZaD3h (accessed 18.04.2019). (In Russ.)

Napso M. B. Ensuring of Ethnic Individuality in the Context of Realization of the Collective and Individual Rights. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 5, pp. 36—45. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_5_4

Nikitina E. E. Constitutional-Legal Regulation of Non-Governmental Organizations in the Russian Federation: Regional Aspect. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2015, no. 6, pp. 966—975. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/17103

Os'makova O. N. General Description of the Legal Regulation of Missionary Activity of the Russian Orthodox Church. Aktual'nye problemy gumanitarnykh i estestvennykh nauk, 2015, no. 1-2. (In Russ.)

Ovchinnikov V. A. Comparative Analysis of the Work Methods of the Altai Spiritual Mission in the South of Western Siberia and the Catholic Mission in Inner Mongolia (2nd Half of the 19th — Early 20th Century). Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2010, no. 330. (In Russ.)

Pashentsev D. A. Russian Legislative Tradition: Ontology of the Process. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 8, pp. 5—13. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_8_1

Poberezhnikov I. V. Materials on the History of Spreading the Rumours about Violent Christianization among the Indigenous Peoples of the East of Russia (XVIII–XIX Centuries). Problems of Administrative and State Regulation of Inter-Ethnic Relations in the Tyumen Region: Historical Experience and Modernity: Materials of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference, March, 1995. Tobol'sk, 1995. (In Russ.)

Poplavskiy R. O. Rationality of Conversion: on the Application of Robert Horton 's Theory to the Study of the Conversion of the Indigenous Small Peoples of Russia to Christianity. Man and North: Anthropology, Archeology, Ecology. Materials of the All-Russian Scientific Conference (Tyumen, April 2–6, 2018). Tyumen', 2018. Iss. 4. (In Russ.)

Shabunin V. V. Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2013. (In Russ.)

Shatuev N. V. State and Legal Regulation of Religious Relations in Transbaikalia in the 2nd Half of XVII – Early XX Century. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2006. (In Russ.)

Sofronov V. Yu. Russian State Legislation on Professional Issues and Orthodox Missionary in the Late 17th and Early 20th Century. Izvestiya Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2007, no. 4-2(56). (In Russ.)

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Vekshina N. M. Missionary Activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in Siberia and the Far East in the 2nd Half of the 19th Century. Cand. diss. thesis. St. Petersburg, 2014. (In Russ.)

Vert P. Orthodoxy, Inoslavy, Other Faiths: Essays on the History of Religious Diversity of the Russian Empire. Moscow, 2012. 280 p. (In Russ.)

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The Role of Judicial Doctrines in Establishing and Elimination of Gaps in Legislation

Yu. E. IBRAGIMOVA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
E-mail: ibragimova.j.e@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.6

Abstract
In the law enforcement process courts face gaps in legislation and, due to nature of their activities, are not able to wait for their removal by a legislator. At this rate, the court has to do a lot of work, develop a method based on the achievements of the theory of law, related to the applicable rule on the basis of established facts through judicial interpretation. Carrying out this activity, the court forms the judicial doctrine. Judicial doctrine is a complex legal phenomenon, which boundaries are constantly changing, and the content is enriched. Various factors are included in the process of formation of the judicial doctrine. Among them there are doctrinal provisions and ideas contained in judicial practice. The author distinguishes between the concept of judicial and legal doctrine, noting that legal doctrine certainly influences the law enforcement process, but is developed outside the court by the scientific community. In turn, the judicial doctrine is a reasoned approach of the court to the resolution of a complex case, based, inter alia, on legal doctrine. Thus, judicial doctrine can enrich the legal one and vice versa.
The article also analyzes the role of Scientific Advisory Councils established at the courts to facilitate the formation of the judicial doctrine. The analysis shows that the formation of judicial doctrines is the activity of the judicial authorities, aimed at applying the norms of law in accordance with the objectives of its adoption, based on principles of law, ensuring uniformity of interpretation and application of the norms of law, filling gaps in legislation, taking into account the authoritative opinion of Scientific Advisory Councils.

Keywords
judicial doctrines, judicial practice, law enforcement, legal reasoning, legislative gap.

For citation
Ibragimova Yu. E. The Role of Judicial Doctrines in Establishing and Elimination of Gaps in Legislation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 80—95. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.6

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■ LABOR LAW AND SOCIAL SECURITY LAW

Sport and Rights of Senior Generation

T. E. MELNIK

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: melnikte@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.7

Abstract
One of the main objectives of the state policy in the field of physical culture and sports is to increase the number of citizens, including those of the older generation, who are systematically involved in sports activities.
The aim of the study is to develop legislative proposals aimed at supporting mass sports among elderly citizens. The presence of legislative opportunities in this direction is revealed, the role of public authorities and local self-government as organizers of mass sports is defined. Various directions of involvement of elderly citizens in mass sports are researched.
The article analyzes the federal legislation and the legislation of Russian constituent entities on physical culture and sports in terms of consolidating the powers of public authorities and local authorities for the development of mass sports. The article analyzes the provisions of the legislation in order to identify tools to attract non-profit organizations to the development of mass sports among elderly citizens.
It is concluded that the primary role of public authorities and local authorities lies in increasing the proportion of older citizens, systematically engaged in physical culture events and sports, which corresponds to the social state concept. In general, there are necessary legislative prerequisites for this. At the same time, a certain adjustment of the legislation is required, aimed at the institutionalization of elderly citizens as recipients of public services in the field of physical culture and sports. There is also legislative support of veterans' activities. In Russian constituent entities it is necessary to provide in the program documents, in addition to ensuring the holding of sports competitions, also resource support for systematic physical training and sports of the older generation. The resources of the third sector should also be used. It is offered to focus sports federations, by means of the state accreditation, on development of mass sports, including, sports of elderly citizens.

Keywords
rights of citizens of the senior generation, sport, legislation on physical culture and sports, the powers of public authorities and local governments, socially oriented non-profit organizations, sports federations.

For citation
Melnik T. E. Sport and Rights of Senior Generation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 96—105. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.7

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Kolobkov P. A., Vinogradov A. A., Okun'kov Yu. V. On the development of veteran sports in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2014. 31 p. (In Russ.)

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Putilo N. V. Public Services: between Doctrinal Understanding and Practice of Normative Consolidation (10 Years Later). Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 8, pp. 81—92. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/article_597714e850a8c3.10775309

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■ ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL LAW

Human Dignity in the System of Financial-Legal Values

N. V. OMELEKHINA

Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation
E-mail: n.onv@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.8

Annotation
The branch of legal doctrine need formation of a stable constitutional-legal position as meta-legal basis and value base, which allows generating the imperatives of sectoral law-making and implying law. In the modern period in the science of financial law the most acute problems are such as the definition of the subject-methodological component of the branch of law, the formation of its system, etc. In order to find solutions to these problems, the article proposes to turn to the study of the meta-legal essence of financial law using the category of human dignity as an existential value that penetrates into national law and claims the status of the principle of law, a complex interdisciplinary institution and subjective law. For this purpose, the author considers the development of legitimation and legalization of this category, its impact on financial regulation, as well as highlights the features of financial law and its role in the formation of a comprehensive interdisciplinary institution of human dignity in national legislation.
Formal-legal, concrete-historical, structural-functional and other methods are used.
Investigating the constitutional category of human dignity in the system of financial regulation, the author comes to the conclusion that the human dignity is a meta-legal basis for the formation of financial law, i.e. a legal concept that determines the target essence of financial activity of a state, the criterion for assessing its effectiveness and efficiency. Ensuring the human dignity depends largely on the human activities. This applies not only to negative regulation, which is addressed both to a private and public entity, to refrain from belittling and violating the dignity of other people, but also to positive regulation, which is expressed in the obligation of the individual to form public funds and the obligation of the public entity to spend these funds to create conditions that ensure a decent life for everyone. The main legal way to ensure the dignity of a person in financial law is a positive obligation of a person in relation to the state, and self-binding state to ensure a decent standard of living, guaranteeing the value of each human.

Keywords
human dignity, financial law, financial activity, positive obligation, human rights and freedoms, public obligation, financial obligation.

For citation
Omelekhina N. V. Human Dignity in the System of Financial-Legal Values. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 106—120. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.8

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Problems of Personnel Reserve Formation in Civil Service

D. I. KOVTKOV, V. I. KUZNETSOV

D. I. Kovtkov, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: gleit@mail.ru

V. I. Kuznetsov, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: kuznetsov_v_i@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.9

Abstract
The article is devoted to clarifying the legal content of the problems arising from the need for practice in the formation of the personnel composition of the public service of the Russian Federation, taking into account the experience gained in creating and accumulating personnel reserves in some types of public service.
The purpose of the study and the objectives are to analyze the legal, organizational foundations of the named institute, its purpose, principles and conditions of use.
The use of general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis) of cognition of legal phenomena reflects the specifics of processes arising in personnel reserve formation.
The authors consider legal and organizational foundations of the named institute, its goals, principles and conditions of application. The reason for its emergence is the need to provide wider access for citizens to enter the civil service. The idea to form groups of candidates among public servants to be promoted to higher positions, which was enshrined in 1995 in the norms of the Federal Law "On the foundations of public service", is currently being implemented in a system of special units — personnel reserves from civil servants, and citizens not in the civil service. The purpose of the reserves is to search and select the most worthy and qualified specialists to fill the positions of the state civil service. The development of personnel reserves is in the direction of facilitating citizens' access to public service and the formation of a new type of personnel reserve — the reserve of managerial personnel. In conclusion, the article outlines the current directions of creating legal conditions in the field of personnel reserves, including: strengthening the status of reservists, creating legal conditions for their practical involvement in the performance of functions assumed for filling positions, individual professional development of persons included in the reserve of personnel at the federal level; participation of persons included in the reserve in events ensuring the acquisition by them of the necessary theoretical and practical knowledge and skills.

Keywords
personnel reserve, managerial personnel reserve, reserve training, public service, public civil service, reserve institute, public servant, reserve management, government agency, public civil service position, reserve mechanisms, legal basis of the reserve.

For citation
Kovtkov D. I., Kuznetsov V. I. Problems of Personnel Reserve Formation in Civil Service. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 121—130. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.9

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■ LAND LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Legal Regulation of Strategic Spatial and Territorial Planning

E. M. BUKHVALD

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: buchvald@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.10

Abstract
The formation of the strategic planning system in the Russian Federation means, in particular, the strengthening of the importance of spatial or territorial "slice" of management of socio-economic processes. However, current legal regulation does not clearly delimit the specific tasks of territorial and spatial strategizing. It significantly determines the practice of state and municipal management. Of particularly negative meaning it's for the regional level of state management, where there is no definiteness in the positioning of the spatial “slice” in the strategies of social and economic development of the subjects of the Federation. It's stressed in the paper that such a situation prevents the formation of an effective “vertical” of strategic planning, built on single, non-contradictory legal and methodological basis.
The aim of the study is to substantiate the possibility of a clear functions' division of territorial and spatial regulation as special directions of strategic planning, as well as ways to solve this problem in legislative practice. Attention is focused on the need to form mechanisms for coordination of national projects with spatial development strategies and/or territorial planning schemes.
The research methods are based on the analysis of the existing legal framework on strategic and territorial planning in accordance with the practice of preparation of strategic planning documents, primarily at the level of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
The author substantiates the ways of differentiation of functions of territorial and spatial planning, identifies those specific tasks, which they must solve in the practice of socio-economic development strategies. Special attention is paid to the need to strengthen the institutional aspect of spatial strategizing and territorial management. It is also noted that it's expedient to concentrate the legal regulation of these management procedures in one legislative act — the Federal law on strategic planning.

Keywords
strategic spatial planning, territorial planning, regional strategies.

For citation
Bukhvald E. M. Legal Regulation of Strategic Spatial and Territorial Planning. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 131—143. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.10

References

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Gumenyuk I. S. On the correlation of the concepts of spatial, strategic and territorial planning in the Russian Federation. Vestnik Baltiyskogo federal'nogo universiteta im. I. Kanta. Seriya: Estestvennye i meditsinskie nauki, 2016, no. 1, pp. 37—44. (In Russ.)

Ivanova T. B., Kulakov D. V. Territorial planning in the system of strategic management of the region. Management of strategic development of territories. Saratov, 2016. Pp. 100—102. (In Russ.)

Ruano J. M., Profiroiu M. Conclusions: Intergovernmental Networks and Decentralisation in Europe. In Ruano J., Profiroiu M. (eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of Decentralisation in Europe.

Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. Pp. 477—495.

Saygafarov A. A. Legal framework of territorial planning in the Russian Federation. Novainfo.ru, 2016, vol. 2, no. 42, pp. 153—157. (In Russ.)

Stroev P. V., Reshetnikov S. B. Planning of the spatial development of Germany. Ekonomika Severo-Zapada: problemy i perspektivy razvitiya, 2016, no. 2—3, pp. 110—120. (In Russ.)

Zaynullina M. R. Analysis of present stage approaches to territorial planning. Nauchnye trudy Tsentra perspektivnykh ekonomicheskikh issledovaniy, 2015, no. 9, pp. 17—22. (In Russ.)

■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW

Legal Monitoring Studies in the Eurasian Economic Union

V. Yu. LUKYANOVA, A. V. PAVLUSHKIN

V. Yu. Lukyanova, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: vlada.lukianova@rambler.ru

A. V. Pavlushkin, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: pavlex@lenta.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.11

Abstract
The article examines the legal technologies that assess the effectiveness of the regulations in the Eurasian Economic Union: legal monitoring studies and assessment of regulatory impact.
For achieving the given aim, various methods, such as general scientific (analysis and synthesis, generalization, dialectic) and special scientific (comparative jurisprudence; formal-logical, lawtechnological analysis) were used.
The article studies the provisions of normative legal acts concerning the procedure for conducting legal monitoring studies, as well as the powers of the actors of this direction in public administration. Theoretical and normative bases of the organization of legal monitoring researches are revealed. The activity of assessing the regulatory impact of normative legal acts and their projects is considered as a component of legal monitoring studies. The authors analyze the main directions of legal monitoring studies conducted by relevant officials in the Eurasian Economic Union. The authors emphasize the importance of monitoring activities for improving the legal system in the Eurasian Economic Union. It is summarized that in the process of conducting regulatory impact assessment it is necessary to use legal monitoring, for which such assessment was previously carried out. Here the legal monitoring studies allow assessing the compliance impact of regulatory objectives underlying the adoption of legal regulations, and quality procedures of regulatory impact assessment carried out at the stage of developing and adopting legal acts. The authors give the recommendations and suggestions considering the optimization of legal monitoring studies mechanism and regulatory impact assessment in the Eurasian Economic Union.

Keywords
Eurasian Economic Union, Eurasian Economic Commission, legal monitoring, regulatory impact assessment, economic integration, legal monitoring studies.

For citation
Lukyanova V. Yu., Pavlushkin A. V. Legal Monitoring Studies in the Eurasian Economic Union. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 144—157. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.11

References

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Khabrieva T. Y. Modern legal technologies in the theory and practice of lawmaking and law enforcement. The effectiveness of legislation and modern legal technologies (proceedings of the international school-workshop of young legal scholars, Moscow, May 29—31, 2008). 500 p. (In Russ.)

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Luk'yanova V. Yu. Regulatory Impact Assessment of the Eurasian Economic Commission Legal Acts. Pravo.by = Law.by, 2016, no. 2, pp. 90—97. (In Russ.)

Neshataeva T. N. Uniform law enforcement as a purpose of the Eurasian Economic Union Court. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie = International Justice, no. 4, pp. 115—125. (In Russ.)

Pavlushkin A. V., Nanba S. B. Legal Monitoring of Transnational Acts. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 4, pp. 18—24. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/10296

Tikhomirov Yu. A., Shakhray S. M. Risk and law. Moscow, 2012. 64 p. (In Russ.)

■ SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF COUNTERING CORRUPTION

Anti-Corruption in the Context of Digitalization: Opportunities,Prospects, Risks

A. I. OVCHINNIKOV

Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don 344006, Russian Federation
E-mail: k_fp3@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.12

Abstract
The article considers the influence of digital technologies on corruption and its counteraction in various spheres of public and state life. At the present stage of development, they have high expectations and their prospects should be analyzed. The article analyzes conceptual models, trends and prospects of using digital means of anti-corruption, as well as identifies risks and new threats of corruptogenic nature in connection with the digitalization of public administration, the spread of smart things, the creation of smart cities, storage of big data, digital currencies. By generalizing the experience of modern states in the use of digital technologies in the fight against corruption, forecasting and modeling of anti-corruption legal policy in our country, the arguments in favor of the active development of new directions of the fight against corruption.
Arguments are considered in favor of the conclusion that digitalization can significantly increase the openness, publicity and transparency of public administration, identify corruption-related links, schemes and relationships, optimize anti-corruption activities of law enforcement agencies and limit the opportunities of corrupt officials, but it can also generate new areas of corruption, facilitate the shadow economy expansion of corruption.

Keywords
corruption, anti-corruption, state digitalization, information technology, digitalization of public administration, digital economy, law in the information society.

For citation
Ovchinnikov A. I. Anti-Corruption in the Context of Digitalization: Opportunities, Prospects, Risks. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 158—170. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.12

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Agibalov V. Yu. Virtual footprints in forensics and criminal justice. Cand. diss. thesis. Voronezh, 2010. 24 p. (In Russ.)

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Bessonova V. V., Zhukova A. S. On the issue of participation of institutes of civil society in counteraction of corruption. Gosudarstvennaya vlast' i mestnoe samoupravlenie, 2012, no. 10, pp. 9—14. (In Russ.)

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Gladkikh V. I., Starovoytov V. G. Combating corruption in public procurement: old and new approaches. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2013, no. 9, pp. 47—50. (In Russ.)

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Kamalova G. G. On current state of legislation on official secrecy. Aktual'nye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2014, no. 9, pp. 1893—1898. (In Russ.)

Kaminskiy M. K., Mochagin P. V. The virtual information process of reflection of trace formation as a new trend in forensics. Vestnik kriminalistiki, 2013, no. 3, pp. 51—57. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Scientific and Legal Anti-Corruption Issues. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2012, no. 7, pp. 7—14. (In Russ.)

Koryakin V. M. “Digitalization” of public relations and its impact on the state of corruption in the military organization of the state. Voennoe pravo, 2019, no. 1 (53), pp. 217—228. (In Russ.)

Lopez-Iturriaga F., Pastor Sanz I. Predicting Public Corruption with Neural Networks: An Analysis of Spanish Provinces. Social Indicators Research. 140. 975-998. 10.1007/s11205-017- 1802-2. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321222117_Predicting_Public_Corruption_with_Neural_Networks_An_Analysis_of_Spanish_Provinces (accessed 10.06.2019).

Nasr G. Elbahnasawy. E-Government, Internet Adoption, and Corruption: An Empirical Investigation. World Development, 2014, vol. 57. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.12.005 (accessed 10.06.2019).

Pastukhov P. S. Role and importance technical knowledge in information technology support of the criminal procedure proof. Vestnik Permskogo Universiteta. Juridicheskie Nauki = Perm University Herald, Juridical Sciences, 2014, no. 1, pp. 298—304. (In Russ.)

Pastukhov P. S., Losavio M. Use of Information Technology to Ensure Security of the Individual, Society and State. Vestnik Permskogo Universiteta. Juridicheskie Nauki = Perm University Herald, Juridical Sciences, 2017, no. 2, pp. 231—236. (In Russ.)

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Popov D. A. On the basic state information resources. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2015, no. 9, pp. 2—5. (In Russ.)

Pulyaeva E. V. The problems of using distance learning technologies and e-learning in the educational process. Zakonodatel'stvo i ekonomika, 2015, no. 10, pp. 58—63. (In Russ.)

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Timoshenko I. G. Social Control as Anti-Corruption Tool in the Foreign Countries. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 102—109. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art.2018.1.14

Truntsevskiy Yu. V. Informational Telecommunication Technologies in Countering Petty (Day-to-Day) Corruption. Informatsionnoe pravo, 2017, no. 2, pp. 27—32. (In Russ.)

Truntsevskiy Yu. V., Kurmaev I. T. Improvement of the tax system of Russia with the aid of information technologies. Nalogi, 2015, no. 3, pp. 35—38. (In Russ.)

Truntsevskiy Yu. V., Seval'nev V. V. Prospects for International Anti-Corruption Cooperation of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China. Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe i chastnoe pravo, 2016, no. 6, pp. 30—34. (In Russ.)

Tsirin A. M., Cherepanova E. V., Tulinova O. A. Modern Standards and Technologies of Counteraction against Corruption. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 7, pp. 143—171. (In Russ.)

Vasil'ev V. I. Counteraction against Corruption and Local Self-government. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2012, no. 4, pp. 5—17. (In Russ.)

Vorontsov S. A., Lokota O. V., Goloborod'ko A. Yu., Ponedelkov A. V. On the problems of combating corruption in modern Russia and possible ways to increase the effectiveness of anticorruption activities. Nauka i obrazovanie: khozyaystvo i ekonomika; predprinimatel'stvo; pravo i upravlenie, 2018, no. 1 (92), pp. 76—80. (In Russ.)

Local Regulation of Prevention and Settlement of Conflict of Interest in Educational Institutions

I. V. PLYUGINA, Zh. A. GAUNOVA

I. V. Plyugina, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: inna_wp@mail.ru

Zh. A. Gaunova, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: janna767@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.13

Abstract
The sphere of education is traditionally recognized as a priority direction of the state policy of the Russian Federation, the state authorities on a regular basis implement measures aimed at improving the procedure for the provision of educational services, as well as improving their quality and accessibility. The relevant tasks and directions of their implementation are reflected in the strategic planning documents, including the State program of the Russian Federation “Development of education” (approved by the government of the Russian Federation on December 26, 2017). 1642), in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 7, 2018 No. 204 “On national goals and strategic objectives of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2024”, in national and priority projects. However, the implementation of almost any of the strategic objectives requires transparent and clear rules of regulation that exclude corruption and minimize the risks of situations of conflict of interest. Unfortunately, while the education sector remains among the most corrupt, although according to surveys conducted by the VTSIOM, the level of corruption in it in 2018 decreased slightly.
To date, the prevention and resolution of conflicts of interest in education at the Federal level are very limited. In this regard, the study of the practice of local regulation, the identification of existing problems and contradictions that cause insufficient efficiency of prevention and settlement of conflicts of interest in educational institutions is relevant.
As shown by the analysis of local acts, often educational organizations approach the development of acts aimed at preventing and resolving conflicts of interest, very formally, without paying attention to the risks specific to the relevant areas of educational activities, and sometimes simply duplicating the rules of Federal law and listing a common model list of situations related to conflict of interest. When regulating issues related to the conflict of interest, different approaches are used at the local level in determining the conceptual and categorical apparatus, in establishing the circle of persons who are subject to the obligation to prevent and resolve conflicts of interest, in determining typical situations containing conflicts of interest, in choosing the tools used to prevent and resolve conflicts of interest, etc.

Keywords
conflict of interests, conflict of interests of the pedagogical worker, educational organizations, anti-corruption.

For citation
Plyugina I. V., Gaunova Zh. A. Local Regulation of Prevention and Settlement of Conflict of Interest in Educational Institutions. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 171—181. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.13

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Nozdrachev A. F. Konflikt interesov: novoe “universal'noe” normativnoe pravovoe opredelenie ponyatiya v zakonodatel'stve o protivodeystvii korruptsii. Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2016, no. 6.

Plyugina I. V. Anti-Corruption Legal Mechanisms in Education Sector. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 12, pp. 123—133. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/22730

Rezer T. M., Verstunina I. V. Protivodeystvie korruptsii v sfere obrazovaniya. Ekaterinburg, 2015. 115 p.

Seval'nev V. V., Cherepanova E. V. Conflict of Interest as a Legal Phenomenon in the Public Sphere. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 10, pp. 143—151. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/article_59c4d75e1bf445.36849459

Tsirin A. M., Cherepanova E. V., Tulinova O. A. Modern Standards and Technologies of Counteraction against Corruption. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 7, pp. 143—171. (In Russ.)

■ LEGAL LIFE. CHRONICLE

To the Memory of V. E. Chirkin

Contents of issues:

2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997