Contents of issue # 8/2019

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Prognostic Methodology in Legal Research

S. V. LIPEN

Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Moscow 125993, Russian Federation
Е-mail: svlipen@msal.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.1

Abstract
In a view of modern processes of development of post-industrial society, globalization, information and digitalization of social relations, the importance of science-based forecasts of the development of legal phenomena, political and legal system as a whole. The prognostic function is traditionally indicated among the functions of legal science. The prognostic method is not always called and characterized among the methods of legal science.
The aims and objectives of the study are to clarify the status of prognostic methodology in the system of methods of legal science, in the formulation of a number of methodological problems of legal forecasting.
The study was conducted on the basis of general scientific and private scientific methodology, using logical, systematic, structural and functional, historical and other methods.
In modern conditions the prognostic concept should be included in every social and political-legal theory. The use of legal forecasting is necessary to study the prospects for the development of state legal institutions, it is considered as a necessary condition for the improvement of the Russian legal system. The task of developing a proper prognostic methodology, technology of application of the prognostic method is relevant. Currently we can state a certain level of development of a number of methodological problems - in modern legal science characterized objects and levels, areas, types and limits, stages and individual methods of legal forecasting. Various positions and approaches suggest further clarification of these methodological issues, primarily approaches to the definition of stages and methods of legal forecasting. Also relevant is the orientation of the general theoretic and branch legal studies on the use of predictive methodology. It is necessary to develop the doctrine of the methodology of legal science in terms of clarifying the status of the prognostic method, which should be specified and characterized in the framework of this doctrine, along with formal dogmatic, historical, comparative legal and other methods actively used in the study of political and legal reality.

Keywords
legal forecasting, methods of legal science, prognostic methodology, legal foresight, forecasting of consequences of adoption of normative legal acts.

For citation
Lipen S.V. Prognostic Methodology in Legal Research. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 5—13. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.1


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Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102.

Kornev A. V. Marksizm i sovremennost. Pravo, zakon i sud v rannikh trudakh Karla Marksa (k 200-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya K. Marksa). Ed. by V. V. Lazarev. Moscow, 2019.

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Radchenko V. I., Ivanyuk O. A., Plyugina I. V., Tsirin A. M., Chernobel G. T. Practical Issues of Forecasting Legislation and Efficiency of Application of Forecasted Norms. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2008, no. 8, pp. 3—14. (In Russ.)

Shvab K. Chetvertaya promyshlennaya revolyutsiya. Moscow, 2016.

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On the State's Ideological Function in Modern Virtual Space Conditions

Yu. V. ANOKHIN, M. P. BARANOV

Yu. V. ANOKHIN, Barnaul Law Institute, Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Barnaul 656038, Russian Federation
E-mail: anohin1963@rambler.ru

M. P. BARANOV, Barnaul Law Institute, Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Barnaul 656038, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.2

Abstract
Changing of information place in human life, process of globalization, political processes that change the face of the planet, struggle for markets, a series of financial crises - all these apects lead to escalating competition between states, followed by a sharp ideological confrontation. In the escalating competition era the existence and development of states depends on states' performing all the duties, among which the ideological function is one of the most important, in our opinion.
The purpose of this work is to study actual problems of the virtual space as a special communicative sphere notable for a number of features that allow a state to perform the ideological function more effectively.
Objectives of the study: to give a general theoretical description of the ideological function performing by the state in the virtual space.
In the process of the research the authors used general scientific and private scientific methods. The methodological basis of the work is the dialectical method of cognition. In addition to that, other methods are also used: rather-legal - at studying the specifics of the ideological function implementing in the virtual space in foreign countries; linguistic interpretation - at defining concepts used in the study; functional method provides insight into important characteristics of the virtual space ensuring the performing ideological function by the state in the modern conditions.
The authors come to the conclusion that the emergence and development of virtual space has had a significant impact on implementing the methods of performing ideological function by the state. On the one hand, the virtual space opens wide opportunities for the government to carry out propaganda and persuasion, providing a previously unseen audience of recipients involved in information exchange, but, on the other hand, the huge competition between information sources in a difficultly controlled space can reduce these benefits to a minimum.

Keywords
ideological function of the state, virtual space, control over information, multimedia of virtual space.

For citation
Anokhin Yu.V., Baranov M.P. On the State's Ideological Function in Modern Virtual Space Conditions. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 14—24. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.2


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By-law-making in the Modern Understanding: Realities and Prospects

A. I. ABRAMOVA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: theory@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.3

Abstract
The problem of by-law-making remains relevant for the domestic legal science and practice. This is due to a number of factors an important place among which is taken by the need to create a single internally consistent legal system of the Russian state, to increase the level of its functioning with regard to new realities. The topic of discussion within the framework of the problem under consideration both in the scientific community and in practice is the question of the relationship between laws and by-laws, their systemic communication; delimitation of the scope of legislative and by-law regulation, separation of a by-law from the general array of legal acts in the context of the continuing growth in the number of such acts, changing forms of their expression.
In the process of research the method of formal logical analysis, the systematic approach, the historical and comparative legal methods were used.
Analysis of various points of view on this issue allowed the author to reveal the essence and purpose of secondary legislation, to show the place and role of secondary regulation in the legal system of modern Russia. By-law-making is considered by the author as a function and the main form of implementation of the rule-making competence of the relevant body, official the limits of which are determined by the legislator on the basis of state policy in the field of organization of executive, judicial authority, local authority. The author comes to the conclusion that determining whether there is a need for by-laws is the most important condition for its objectification in the field of legal regulation of social relations, given the multi-purpose, multi-level nature of such regulation. It has a large and significant potential for the state and society, including the primary rule-making (norm-setting). The article analyzes the issues of optimization of by-law-making activity in Russia, identifies promising areas of its development.

Keywords
law-making, by-laws, legal norms, law enforcement, forms of by-law-making, limits of by-law regulation.

For citation
Abramova A.I. By-law-making in the Modern Understanding: Realities and Prospects. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 25—35. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.3


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■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

Direct Action of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Restriction of Constitutional Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen in the Context of Judicial Practice

N. M. KOLOSOVA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: const@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.4

Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of restrictions of constitutional rights and freedoms in the context of the direct effect of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The position is expressed in accordance with which federal law must comply with the wording established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation when there is the stipulated in part 3 of Art. 55 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation restriction of constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen. Scientific debates on the relationship between the categories of “limiting and depriving human rights” are considered. Humiliation, as well as denial of rights, is only one of the forms or methods of their restriction as a constitutional value. Accordingly, the requirements of part 3 of Art. 55 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation are applicable not only to restriction, but also to derogation or denial of the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen.
Examples include electoral rights and the right to life. It is concluded that deprivation of rights is an extreme form of limitation. The relevant decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation are analyzed. Thus, the Resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of April 19, 2016 No. 12-P was considered according to which the federal legislator is entitled to provide for other restrictive conditions for the exercise of voting rights to the extent necessary to protect the foundations of the constitutional order, morality, health rights and legitimate interests of other persons, to ensure the defense of the country and the security of the state.
It is concluded that the powers of the legislator are limited to the direct effect of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. In the framework of ensuring the direct effect of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the electoral rights of citizens of the Russian Federation could be further limited solely in order to achieve the goals stipulated by part 3 of Art. 32 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. One of these goals is the elimination from the electoral list of citizens of the Russian Federation who can distort the collective will of the people.

Keywords
direct effect of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, deprivation of rights, restriction of rights, impairment of rights, cancellation of rights, denial of rights, right to life, suspension of rights, electoral rights, genomic research, Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

For citation
Kolosova N.M. Direct Action of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Restriction of Constitutional Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen in the Context of Judicial Practice. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 36—47. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.4


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Freedom of Peaceful Assembly: “Children's Meetings” and “Adult Sanctions”

A. V. SALENKO

Law Institute, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236016, Russian Federation
E-mail: ASalenko@kantiana.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.5

Abstract
A new term has appeared in the Russian domestic legislation on the freedom of peaceful assembly - the involvement of minors into unauthorized public events. The author provides a critical analysis of this legal concept and tries to answer the question to what extent this novel corresponds to international and national constitutional law, which explicitly guarantees minors' right to freedom of peaceful assembly.
This article systematically reviews the current issues related to participation of minors in public protest actions, including the first case in Russia occurred in Kaliningrad regarding involvement of minors into unauthorized picketing. The author suggests to improve Russian law on public assembly, particularly follow-up revision of the mechanism for bringing to responsibility in cases when minors are involved into unauthorized public events.
In the study the author uses the traditional research methods such as analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, logic and comparative legal methods.
Based on the analysis of legal provisions prohibiting the involvement of minors into unauthorized public actions, the author concludes that the quality of law is low due to the fact that the legislator uses a legal technique of “point bans” - haphazardly and selectively imposing bans on the “involvement of minors” merely into certain administrative offences. Thus, as a result, the law provides excessive and disproportionate administrative responsibility (a fine of 50 000 Rubles - 700 EUR) for involving children into unauthorized but peaceful public events; and, at the same time, the federal legislator “punishes” the involvement of minors into alcohol and tobacco consumption with a symbolic fine of 3000 Rubles (40 EUR). The author represents the opinion that there is a strong need to introduce a general ban on the involvement of minors into any administrative offences, and also favours modification of the Art. 20.2 (11) of the Russian Code of Administrative Violations (RCAV), which would supplement the sanction of this norm with the possibility to issue a warning and cancel the lower limit of the fine. These measures can guarantee the proportional nature of administrative responsibility and judges can truly be able to individualize the administrative punishment taking into account all relevant circumstances in the particular case where minors are involved.

Keywords
children, minors, the involvement of children into unauthorized public events, unauthorized picketing, freedom of artistic expression, artistic protest, photo session, performance, public events, rallies, demonstrations, marches, pickets, meetings, freedom of peaceful assembly, the right of public assembly.

For citation
Salenko A.V. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly: “Children's Meetings” and “Adult Sanctions”. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 48—61. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.5

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Salikov M. S. International Law and Protection of Human Rights by the Russian Constitutional Court. Problemy prava, 2003, no. 1, pp. 80—95. (In Russ.)

The Freedom of Peaceful Assembly in Europe. Nomos. Ed. by A. Peters, I. Ley. Baden-Baden, 2016.

The Public Authorities restrict the Freedom of Assembly in Russia. Press Release by the Registrar of the European Court of Human Rights (unofficial translation). ECHR 053 (2017) 07.02.2017. Available at: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng-press?i=003-5621965-7111249. (In Russ.)

Vasilev V. The Art Group “Voina“ (War): Art or Hooliganism? Available at: https://www.golos-ameriki.ru/a/vv-art-on-the-edge-2011-02-21-116607788/213396.html (accessed 11.06.2019). (In Russ.)

■ CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS LAW

The Problem of Protection of Rights of Investors in Crowdfunding: Investment Risks and Ways to Overcome Them

T. S. YATSENKO

Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don 344006, Russian Federation
E-mail: tat-yacenko@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.6

Abstract
The investor protection issue in crowdfunding is of particular relevance due to the growing number of crowdfunding platforms in Russia, whose activities are still not regulated. However, the peculiarity of crowdfunding and the specifics of the conditions for its implementation increase the risk of losses for investors also in result of unfair actions taken by individuals attracting investments. In this regard, it is necessary to develop an adequate system of measures to protect the rights and interests of investors, which would take into account the importance of supporting crowdfunding as a growing investment activity and at the same time, prevent abuses in this area.
The purpose of the article is to study the main areas of crowdfunding investor protection proposed in the Draft Federal Law No. 419090-7 “On Attracting Investments Using Investment Platforms” and evaluating its effectiveness with due account of foreign experience.
To achieve the required theoretical result, the article uses such general scientific methods as analysis, induction, and deduction. The composition of the particular scientific methods includes a comparative analysis and a systematic approach to the study of the problem.
The study led to the conclusion that the focus on informing the investor and limiting the amount of this investment, which is made in the Russian draft law following foreign legislation, is not a sufficient measure to ensure the rights and interests of investors in crowdfunding and requires the development of additional security tools, which would take into account, among other things, the features of certain investment methods, including the acquisition of digital rights.

Keywords
crowdfunding, investing activities, investor, crowdlending, crowdinvesting, protection of rights, security, digital right, token.

For citation
Yatsenko T.S. The Problem of Protection of Rights of Investors in Crowdfunding: Investment Risks and Ways to Overcome Them. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 62—71. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.6


References

Bradford C. S. Crowdfunding and the Federal Securities Laws. Columbia Business Law Review, 2012, no. 1, pp. 1—150.

Drobyshev P. Russian crowdfunding. Projects of regulation of crowdfunding activity. Available at: https://zakon.ru/blog/2018/03/05/rossijskij_kraudfanding _proekty_regulirovaniya_kraudfandingovoj_deyatelnosti (accessed 19.04.2019). (In Russ.)

Fairfield J. BitProperty. Washington & Lee Legal Studies Paper, 2014, no. 17, pp. 1—72.

Gurrea-Martinez A., Remolina N. The Law and Finance of Initial Coin Offerings. Ibero-American Institute for Law and Finance Working Paper, 2018, no. 4. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3182261 (accessed 12.04.2019).

Guznov A., Mikheeva L., Novoselova L., Avakyan Ye. et al. Digital assets in the system of civil law objects. Zakon, 2018, no. 5, pp. 16—38. (In Russ.)

Hazen T. L. Crowdfunding or Fraudfunding? Social Networks and the Securities Laws — Why the Specially Tailored Exemption Must be Conditioned on Meaningful Disclosure. North Carolina Law Review, 2012, vol. 90, pp. 1735—1769.

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Klinov A. O. The legal regulation of crowdfunding in Russia and foreign jurisdictions. Zakon, 2018, no. 2, pp. 90—105. (In Russ.)

Laptev V. A. Digital assets as objects of the civil rights. Vestnik Nizhegorodskoy akademii MVD Rossii, 2018, no. 2, pp. 199—204. (In Russ.)

Mollick E. R. The Dynamics of Crowdfunding: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Business Venturing, 2014, vol. 29, iss. 1, pp. 1—16.

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Rohr J., Wright A. Blockchain-Based Token Sales, Initial Coin Offerings, and the Democratization of Public Capital Markets. University of Tennessee Legal Studies Research Paper, 2017, no. 338. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3048104 (accessed 03.05.2019).

Special Measures of Civil Liability in Corporate Law as a Basic Characteristics of Corporate Liability

O. V. GUTNIKOV

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: oleg_gutnikov@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.7

Abstract
Incorporating corporate relations in the subject of civil law makes it possible to pick out a special corporate liability in civil law relations. At the same time, the system of corporate liability measures, that reflects the corporate relations' specifics, remains undeveloped in legislation and civil law doctrine.
The purpose of the research is to justify the composition, content and main features of corporate liability measures in civil law. In this case, the task is to consider the theoretical basis to highlight the special sanctions of corporate liability, to identify their composition and content in the context of the basic principles of corporate liability, including the principle of specialty.
The methodological basis of the study is general research methods (analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, the method of system analysis) and methods of legal science (including methods of comparative law, literal, systematic, teleological and historical interpretation of legal norms).
As a result of the research, conclusions are drawn about the essential specificity of the composition and procedure for applying corporate liability measures in comparison with general sanctions of liability in civil law. In particular, it is substantiated that this specificity is due to the non-proprietary nature of the rights and duties, which violation causes initiate measures for corporate liability. This specificity is manifested both in non-material corporate sanctions, which are basic for corporate liability, and in special property measures of liability. A special system of measures of property and non-property liability in corporate law is proposed. It has been established that the main feature of property sanctions in corporate law is the principle of specialty, according to which the recovery of damages and other corporate liability measures can take place only in cases expressly provided by law. The features of the sanctions of corporate liability for committing a corporate tort are substantiated. The article reveals how the size of corporate liability sanctions depends on the volume of administrative corporate rights belonging to the violator.

Keywords
legal entities, civil liability, corporate liability, corporate offenses, corporate relations, corporate torts, measures of corporate liability.

For citation
Gutnikov O.V. Special Measures of Civil Liability in Corporate Law as a Basic Characteristics of Corporate Liability. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 72—84. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.7


References

Braginskiy M. I., Vitryanskiy V. V. Contract Law: General Provisions. Moscow, 1997. 682 p. (In Russ.)

Corporate Law. Ed. by I. S. Shitkina. Vol. 2. Moscow, 2018. 990 p. (In Russ.)

Gutnikov O. V. Corporate Liability in Civil Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 3. pp. 39—52. (In Russ.)

Gutnikov O. V. Corporate Liability in Civil Law. Moscow, 2019. 488 p. (In Russ.)

Ioffe O. S. Law of Obligations. Moscow, 1975. 880 p. (In Russ.)

Ioffe O. S. Liability under Soviet Civil Law. In Ioffe O. S. Selected Works: Vol. I: Legal Relationship under Soviet Civil Law. Liability under Soviet Civil Law. St. Petersburg, 2003. Pp. 94—572. (In Russ.)

Krasheninnikov Ye. A. The Concept of Civil Liability. Vestnik VAS RF, 2012, no. 5, pp. 6—11. (In Russ.)

Leyst O. E. Sanctions and Liability under Soviet Law. Moscow, 1981. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Losses and Practice of their Compensation. Ed. by M. A. Rozhkova. Moscow, 2006. 622 p. (In Russ.)

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Sinitsyn S. A. The Right to the Dividend: Risks, Contents, Implementation and Protection. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2018, no. 4, pp. 91—131. (In Russ.)

■ CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY

Humanization of Criminal Law and Its Role in Preventing Crimes in the Field of Entrepreneurship

A. A. GRAVINA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russia
E-mail: crim@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.8

Abstract
Business crime prevention is determined by a free development of business. The lack of security for the property of businessmen and the lack of their personal security is a real problem which slows down business development in the country. There is always a risk of losing business due to the raider attacks and bringing criminal charges against businessmen. The 2010 Concept of modernizing criminal law in the field of business activity, developed under the order of the Russian President, determines these factors as the main reasons preventing entrepreneurs from investing into businesses, promoting capital outflow and as the result - obstacles for legal business activity arise.
The goal in this research is to analyze the above reasons and find out the solutions based on humanization of criminal law.
The methodological basis of the study is the dialectical materialist method, which studies phenomena in their totality, taking into account interrelations and dependencies. General scientific and special legal research methods, comparative legal and system research methods are used.
It is possible to stimulate the return of entrepreneurs to a legal business only by creating legal guarantees for ensuring business within law. Unjustified criminalization, the constant danger of losing a business as a result of criminal charges that impede legitimate business activities, identifies the main directions of criminal policy based on the principles of humanism. The result of humanization is the adoption of criminal law measures that create difficulties for raider seizures of property. There is also a need to establish criminal liability for unlawful initiation of criminal proceedings, if it is committed in order to prevent business activities. The real measure of free business activity is the addition to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation norms exempting entrepreneurs from criminal liability. The Federal laws adopted on 12/27/2018 create additional real guarantees stimulating business activities within the law.

Keywords
humanization of criminal law, business, the 2010 Concepts of modernizing criminal law in economic field, raiders attacks, protection of property, personal protection of entrepreneurs, releasing businessmen form criminal charges, specifics of bringing criminal charges against businessmen.

For citation
Gravina A. A. Humanization of Criminal Law and Its Role in Preventing Crimes in the Field of Entrepreneurship. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 85—95. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.8


References

Baranov V. M. Legal errors in the sphere of legislative and law enforcement regulation of the economy. The effectiveness of legislation in the economic sphere: scientific and practical research. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2010. 384 p. (In Russ.)

Citizen, law and public authority. Moscow, 2005. 367 p. (In Russ.)

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Kharitonov A. N. Legal regulation of counteraction to raiding. Administrativnoe i munitsipalnoe pravo, 2015, no. 1, pp. 37—42. (In Russ.)

Koshaeva T. O. The impact of criminalization and decriminalization on the modernization of a Special section of Russian criminal law. Criminalization and decriminalization as a form of transformation of criminal legislation. Ed. by V. P. Kashepov. Moscow, 2018. Pp. 180—199. (In Russ.)

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Truntsevskiy Yu. V. Criminal law problems of violations of legislation in the field of economic activity. VII joint Russian-German round table “Economic Crimes: Russian and European experience”. Moscow, 2016. Pp. 73—76. (In Russ.)

■ ADMINISTRATIVE LAW. FINANCIAL LAW

Tax Enforcement: The Change of Paradigm

I. V. DEMENTEV

Central Branch, Russian State University of Justice, Voronezh 394006, Russian Federation
E-mail: i.v.dementyev@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.9

Abstract
The administrative and judicial practice of recent years indicates the expansion of the discretionary beginnings of tax enforcement. This is contrary to the traditional law enforcement paradigm. In the course of tax enforcement new forms of legal activity (a contract) are actively used, and the interpretation of civil legal concepts and terms is carried out in a special fiscal regime. Tax law enforcement is characterized by the expansion of judicial discretion by securing in the tax legislation or judicial practice the so-called general anti-incrimination rule. A new tax law enforcement paradigm is causing increased uncertainty and unpredictability. Tax enforcement becomes context-sensitive, prognostic. Tax authorities and courts constantly propose different solutions depending on the facts and circumstances of each specific situation and the current political and socio-economic situation.
The purpose of the study is to identify and analyze the specifics of tax enforcement in order to confirm or refute the hypothesis of changing the traditional paradigm of tax enforcement. The objectives of the study are the analysis of judicial practice in the application of tax and legal norms, the identification of contractual elements in tax law enforcement, the determination of the boundaries of administrative and judicial discretion, and the mutual influence of tax and civil legislation on tax law enforcement.
During the study analysis and synthesis, comparison, formal legal method, forecasting were used.
The study confirmed the hypothesis of a change in the traditional model of tax enforcement. The dependence of tax enforcement on judicial interpretation, the expansion of discretionary principles and judicial discretion, the use of civil law institutions in a special tax regime to achieve the objectives of tax enforcement are revealed. The negative trend of growing uncertainty, contextual dependence of tax enforcement has been noted.

Keywords
tax enforcement, unjustified tax benefit, judicial doctrines, administrative discretion, judicial discretion, dispositive legal regulation, civil law determination.

For citation
Dementev I.V. Tax Enforcement: The Change of Paradigm. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 96—106. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.9


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Dementev I. V. Actual problems of the tax enforcement mechanism. Rossiyskiy zhurnal pravovykh issledovaniy, 2017, no. 2, pp. 12—18. (In Russ.)

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“Flexible” Structures of Public Administration

A. V. KALMYKOVA, P. P. KABYTOV

A. V. KALMYKOVA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: adm2@izak.ru

P. P. KABYTOV, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: adm1@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.10

Abstract
Domestic public administration is increasingly resorting to the practice of borrowing methods of corporate management. The past implementation of the project management method led to the formation of specific organizational structures in the apparatus of public administration. In management, such structures are characterized as "flexible" because they are characterized by sufficient discretion to perform tasks. However, in public administration, initiative and discretion are limited by a strict legal framework, accountability to higher public authorities and society, a special regime of spending the budget allocated for the implementation of the project structures.
The purpose of the study is to reveal the legal nature of the new structures implementing the method of project management, to assess the consequences of the introduction of corporate management approaches in the state legal matter.
The objectives of the study is to analyze the regulatory legal regulation of project activities and the legal status of the project management bodies, to assess how constructively passed their adaptation.
To achieve the goals and objectives of the study used including formal-legal, formal-logical methods, method of interpretation of law, as well as General scientific methods.
According to the results of the study the authors come to the conclusion that a special (simplified) legal regime is being built for the management bodies of project activities to exercise public functions and powers. Proposals for its final formation are formulated. The conclusion is made about the need to strengthen the legal status of officials involved in the management and implementation of the project. Attention is drawn to the risks of delegating legislative authority to representatives of the business community who are participants in a project as part of project management.

Keywords
public administration, flexible structures, project management, project office.

For citation
Kalmykova A.V., Kabytov P.P. “Flexible” Structures of Public Administration. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 107—120. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.10


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■ PROCEDURAL LAW

Current Problems of Unification of Procedural Legislation

V. M. ZHUYKOV, M. O. DOLOVA

V. M. ZHUYKOV, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: civil@izak.ru

M. O. DOLOVA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: civil@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.11

Abstract
The article deals with some problems of modern civil procedure, including the problems and future of unification of judicial legislation. The Federal Law of November 28, 2018 No. 451-FZ "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation", additions and changes in the Civil Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, Commercial Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, Code of Administrative Procedure of the Russian Federation are analyzed. It is noted that there is a conceptual "gap" between civil and administrative procedures, which is hardly overcome by the amendments. The changes in legislation imply the division of cases, the joint trial of which in most cases is preferable, or the administrative procedure without any specifics just in the ordinary way. Nevertheless, it is noted that such a legislative decision is more preferable than refusal to accept the claim or the termination of the procedure, which block the further trial. This approach indicates attempts to harmonize civil and administrative procedures.
The authors systematize the latest reforms of procedural legislation and identify several main areas that indicate the trend of unification of legal proceedings. Moreover the ways of further unification of civil procedural legislation are offered. In the light of the judicial reform in Russian Federation and the amendments to the procedural codes unreasonable differences in the regulation of similar issues, including the stages and procedures for the review of judicial acts, are revealed.

Keywords
civil procedure, commercial procedure, administrative procedure, unification of procedural legislation, judicial system.

For citation
Zhuykov V.M., Dolova M.O. Current Problems of Unification of Procedural Legislation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 121—135. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.11


References

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Problems of development of Russian procedural law. Ed. by V. M. Zhuykov. Moscow, 2016. 224 pp. (In Russ.)

Sakhnova T. V. Administrative Judicial Procedure: Problems of Self-Identification. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2016, no. 9—10, pp. 35—40. (In Russ.)

Sherstyuk V. M. Categories of reality possibility in civil procedure. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2016, no. 6, pp. 10—32. (In Russ.)

Zhuykov V. M. On Some Issues of Development of Procedural Legislation and Judicial System Legislation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 8, pp. 135—150. (In Russ.)

Judicial Protection of Intellectual Rights in the Digital Age

A. I. SIDORENKO

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: implement@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.12

Abstract
The article is dedicated to the questions which arise in judicial practice in cases concerning protection of intellectual property. The problem of modern legal regulation of intellectual property is formulated as the necessity of determination by courts of just balance between the interests of holders of intellectual property rights and public access to the information. The overview of cases considered under the Chapter 4 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation is presented, which contain the evaluation of certain aspects of application of digital technologies in legal relations from both material and procedural perspectives. A procedure for proving the use of counterfeit programs as a combination of databases and installation distributions has been determined; the procedural role of the domain administrator is defined in cases of infringement of intellectual property rights in the Internet as well as an additional circle of responsible entities: the site owner, hosting provider, domain registrar, search engine operator; the prospect of introducing the practice of refusing to protect a database compiled as a by-product of the organization's activities is evaluated; the problem of correlating the simultaneous publication of the result of intellectual activity in the State party to the Rome International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations of October 26, 1961 and the publication of such an outcome of intellectual activity on the Internet was raised. The application of evidences obtained on the Internet in cases concerning intellectual property rights in comparison with other categories of cases is also reviewed. As a tool of development of intellectual property rights it is proposed to use by courts the approaches to interpretation of laws, which guarantee taking into consideration the economic interests of participants of legal relations based on balance of interests of persons involved in use of intellectual property.

Keywords
intellectual property, digitalization, judicial protection of rights, digital evidences, interpretation of law.

For citation
Sidorenko A.I. Judicial Protection of Intellectual Rights in the Digital Age. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 136—147. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.12


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■ REVIEWS

Review of the Monograph "Modernization of Administrative Legislation (Goals, Objectives, Principles and Relevant Areas)" (ed. by A. F. Nozdrachev. Moscow, 2018. 496 p.)

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Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Moscow 125993, Russian Federation

■ LEGAL LIFE. CHRONICLE

International Space Law: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow

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S. V. SHULGA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

G. G. SHINKARETSKAYA, Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119019, Russian Federation

Law Before the Challenges of the Technological Revolution (Review of XIV International School-Workshop of Young Legal Scholars)

N. B. KRYSENKOVA, O. I. SAKAEVA

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

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